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[翻译]维基条目——耶路撒冷拉丁王国~

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虽说是简略地介绍耶路撒冷王国,但是篇幅相当长。LZ忙了一个多星期,连三分之一都没翻完~
文章的质量还是不错的,比度娘那边的好多了,总体来说值得一看~
毕竟白天还要上班,所以进度可能会比较慢。不过每隔几天我都会更新一下,请大家善用只看楼主功能~
因为LZ是按照文献的标准翻译的,片面追求准确性,所以几乎毫无润色。如果大家看着感觉有点别扭还请见谅~


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1楼2013-08-09 23:16
    Kingdom of Jerusalem

    The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Catholic kingdom established in the Southern Levant in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks, but its history is divided into two distinct periods. The first kingdom lasted from 1099 to 1187, when it was almost entirely overrun by Saladin. After the subsequent Third Crusade, the kingdom was re-established in Acre in 1192, and lasted until that city's destruction in 1291. This second kingdom is sometimes called the Kingdom of Acre.

    耶路撒冷王国

    耶路撒冷拉丁王国(Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem)是一个在第一次十字军东征以后于1099年建立在南部黎凡特(Southern Levant)的天主教王国。该王国持续了近两百年,从1099年直到1291年最后一块领土,阿克(Acre),被马穆鲁克摧毁为止,而它的历史被分为了两个明显不同的时期。第一王国从1099年持续到1187年被萨拉丁几乎完全侵占为止。在随后的第三次十字军东征,该王国又于1192年在阿克被重建,并持续到1201年该城的毁灭为止。这个第二王国有时又被称为阿克王国。


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    本楼含有高级字体2楼2013-08-09 23:17
      Contents [hide]

      1 Geographic boundaries
      2 People
      3 History
      3.1 The First Crusade and the foundation of the kingdom
      3.2 Expansion
      3.3 Edessa, Damascus, and the Second Crusade
      3.4 Civil war
      3.5 Byzantine alliance and invasion of Egypt
      3.6 Baldwin IV and the succession crisis
      3.7 Loss of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade
      3.8 The Kingdom of Acre
      3.9 Fifth Crusade and Frederick II
      3.10 War of the Lombards and the Barons' Crusade
      3.11 Crusade of Louis IX
      3.12 The War of Saint Sabas
      3.13 The Mongols
      3.14 Fall of Acre
      4 Life in the early kingdom
      4.1 Crusader society and demographics
      4.1.1 Population
      4.2 Economy
      4.3 Education
      4.4 Art and architecture
      4.5 Government and legal system
      5 Arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
      6 See also
      7 References
      8 Sources
      8.1 Primary sources
      8.2 Secondary sources

      目录 [隐藏]

      1 地理边界
      2 居民
      3 历史
      3.1 第一次十字军东征和王国的奠基
      3.2 发展
      3.3 埃德萨、大马士革,以及第二次十字军东征
      3.4 内战
      3.5 与拜占庭结盟及入侵埃及
      3.6 鲍德温四世和继承危机
      3.7 耶路撒冷陷落和第三次十字军东征
      3.8 阿克王国
      3.9 第五次十字军东征和腓特烈二世
      3.10 伦巴第战争和男爵东征
      3.11 路易九世东征
      3.12 圣萨巴斯战争
      3.13 蒙古人
      3.14 阿克陷落
      4 王国早期的生活
      4.1 十字军的社会和人口统计
      4.1.1 人口
      4.2 经济
      4.3 教育
      4.4 艺术和建筑
      4.5 政府和法律体系
      5 耶路撒冷王国的武装
      6 参见
      7 参考文献
      8 来源
      8.1 主要来源
      8.2 次要来源


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      3楼2013-08-09 23:17
        Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
        耶路撒冷拉丁王国
        Regnum Hierosolimitanum (Latin/拉丁语)
        Roiaume de Jherusalem (Old French/古法语)
        Regno di Gerusalemme (Italian/意大利语)
        Βασίλειον τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων (Ancient Greek/古希腊语)

        1099-1291

        Flag
        旗帜

        Coat of arms
        纹章

        The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states in the context of the Near East in 1135.
        1135年前后近东的耶路撒冷王国和其它十字军国家。

        Capital
        Jerusalem (1099–1187)
        Tyre (1187–1191)
        Acre (1191–1229)
        Jerusalem (1229–1244)
        Acre (1244–1291)

        首都
        耶路撒冷 (1099–1187)
        提尔 (1187–1191)
        阿克 (1191–1229)
        耶路撒冷 (1229–1244)
        阿克 (1244–1291)

        Languages
        Latin, Old French, Italian (also Arabic and Greek)

        语言
        拉丁语,古法语,意大利语(还有阿拉伯语和希腊语)

        Religion
        Roman Catholicism (official), Greek Orthodoxy, Syrian Orthodoxy, Islam, Judaism

        宗教
        罗马天主教(官方),希腊东正教,叙利亚东正教,伊斯兰教,犹太教

        Government Monarchy

        政府 君主制

        King of Jerusalem
        - 1100–1118 Baldwin I
        - 1118–1131 Baldwin II
        - 1131–1152 Melisende
        - with Fulk 1131–1143
        - 1143-1152-1162 Baldwin III
        - 1162–1174 Amalric I
        - 1174–1185 Baldwin IV
        - 1185-1186 Baldwin V
        - 1285–1291 Henry II

        耶路撒冷国王
        - 1100–1118 鲍德温一世
        - 1118–1131 鲍德温二世
        - 1131–1152 梅丽桑德
        - 与富尔克共治 1131–1143
        - 1143–1152-1162 鲍德温三世
        - 1162–1174 阿尔马里克一世
        - 1174–1185 鲍德温四世
        - 1185–1186 鲍德温五世
        - 1285–1291 亨利二世

        Legislature Haute Cour

        立法机关 高等法院

        Historical era High Middle Ages
        - First Crusade 1099
        - Second Crusade 1145
        - Siege of Jerusalem 1187
        - Third Crusade 1189
        - Treaty of Ramla 1191
        - Capture of Acre 1291

        历史时期 中世纪盛期
        - 第一次十字军东征 1099
        - 第二次十字军东征1145
        - 耶路撒冷围城战 1187
        - 第三次十字军东征 1189
        - 拉姆拉条约 1191
        - 阿克的占领 1291


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        本楼含有高级字体4楼2013-08-09 23:18
          Geographic boundaries

          At first the kingdom was little more than a loose collection of towns and cities captured during the crusade, but at its height in the mid-12th century the kingdom roughly encompassed the territory of modern-day Israel, Palestine and the southern parts of Lebanon. From the Mediterranean Sea, the kingdom extended in a thin strip of land from Beirut in the north to the Sinai Desert in the south; into modern Jordan and Syria in the east, and towards Fatimid Egypt in the west. Three other crusader states founded during and after the First Crusade were located further north: the County of Edessa (1097–1144), the Principality of Antioch (1098–1268), and the County of Tripoli (1109–1289). While all three were independent, they were closely tied to Jerusalem. Beyond these to the north and east lay the states of Armenian Cilicia and the Byzantine Empire, with which Jerusalem had a close relationship in the twelfth century. Further east, various Muslim emirates were located which were ultimately allied with the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad. The fragmentation of the Muslim east allowed for the initial success of the crusade, but as the 12th century progressed, the kingdom's Muslim neighbours were united by Nur ad-Din Zangi and Saladin, who vigorously began to recapture lost territory. Jerusalem itself fell to Saladin in 1187, and in the 13th century the kingdom was reduced to a few cities along the Mediterranean coast. In this period, the kingdom was ruled by the Lusignan dynasty of the Kingdom of Cyprus, another crusader state founded during the Third Crusade. Dynastic ties also strengthened with Tripoli, Antioch, and Armenia. The kingdom was soon increasingly dominated by the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa, as well as the imperial ambitions of the Holy Roman Emperors. Emperor Frederick II (reigned 1220-1250) claimed the kingdom by marriage, but his presence sparked a civil war (1228-1243) among the kingdom's nobility. The kingdom became little more than a pawn in the politics and warfare of the Ayyubid and Mamluk dynasties in Egypt, as well as the Khwarezmian and Mongol invaders. As a relatively minor kingdom, it received little financial or military support from Europe; despite numerous small expeditions, Europeans generally proved unwilling to undertake an expensive journey to the east for an apparently losing cause. The Mamluk sultans Baibars (reigned 1260-1277) and al-Ashraf Khalil (reigned 1290-1293) eventually reconquered all the remaining crusader strongholds, culminating in the destruction of Acre in 1291.

          地理边界

          最初该王国几乎不过是个由十字军东征中占领的城镇和城市组成的松散集合,但是在它12世纪中期的高峰,该王国大致包含了今天以色列,巴勒斯坦和黎巴嫩南部的领地。从地中海开始,该王国是一个延伸的狭长地带,从北边的贝鲁特直到到南边的西奈沙漠,从东边今天的约旦和叙利亚境内直到西边的法蒂玛埃及。其它三个在第一次东征以后建立的十字军国家位于更远一些的北部:埃德萨伯国(County of Edessa, 1097–1144),安条克公国(Principality of Antioch, 1098–1268),以及的黎波里伯国(County of Tripoli, 1109–1289)。尽管三个国家都是独立的,但它们还是和耶路撒冷紧密联系在一起。在更远处的北方和东方,是亚美尼亚奇里乞亚(Armenian Cilicia)和拜占庭帝国,在十二世纪耶路撒冷和它们有着紧密的关系。在远处的东方,坐落着众多的穆斯林埃米尔政权,它们最终都联合在巴格达的阿巴斯王朝的哈里发麾下。穆斯林东方的分裂使得十字军的初次成功得以实现,但是随着12世纪时间的推移,王国的穆斯林邻居被开始积极收复失地的努尔丁·赞吉(Nur ad-Din Zangi)和萨拉丁(Saladin)联合了起来。耶路撒冷自身也于1187年沦陷于萨拉丁,而在13世纪王国又由地中海沿岸的几个城市重建了起来。在这段时期内,王国由另一个在第三次东征中建立的十字军国家塞浦路斯王国(Kingdom of Cyprus)的吕西安王朝(Lusignan dynasty)统治。王朝的关系也由的黎波里、安条克和亚美尼亚巩固着。王国很快就越来越受到意大利城邦威尼斯和热那亚,以及神圣罗马帝国的帝国野心的控制。皇帝腓特烈二世通过联姻取得了这个王国,但他的存在却引发了王国贵族间的一场内战。王国几乎沦为了埃及的阿尤布和马穆鲁克王朝,以及花剌子模和蒙古侵略者在政治和战争上的棋子。作为一个相对较小的王国,来自于欧洲的财政和军事上的支持却很少;尽管小型探险为数众多,欧洲人通常不愿意为一个显得日趋没落的理由来一场去东方的昂贵旅行。马穆鲁克苏丹拜巴尔(Baibars)和阿尔-阿什拉夫·哈利勒(Al-Ashraf Khalil)最后重新征服了所有剩余的十字军要塞,并以1291年阿克的毁灭为终结。


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          5楼2013-08-09 23:19
            People

            The kingdom was ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse, although the crusaders themselves and their descendants were an elite Catholic minority. They imported many customs and institutions from their homelands in Western Europe, and there were close familial and political connections with the West throughout the kingdom's existence. The kingdom also inherited "oriental" qualities, influenced by the pre-existing customs and populations. The majority of the kingdom's inhabitants were native Christians, especially Greek and Syrian Orthodox, as well as Sunni and Shi'a Muslims. There were also a small number of Jews and Samaritans. The native Christians and Muslims, who were a marginalized lower class, tended to speak Greek and Arabic, while the crusaders spoke Latin, French, and other Western European languages.

            Despite its small size and relatively short existence, the exact nature of the kingdom and its origins, customs, laws, and population is still debated. The title to the Kingdom of Jerusalem also continues to be claimed by modern royalty.

            居民

            该王国的种族、宗教和语言是多样化的,尽管十字军自己和他们的后代是一个精英的信奉天主教的少数群体。他们从自己西欧的家乡引入了许多习俗和制度,并且和西方在家族和政治上的紧密联系遍及整个王国。受到先前存在的习俗和人口的影响,王国也继承了“东方”的特点,王国居民的大部分是本地的基督徒,尤其是希腊和叙利亚东正教徒,还有逊尼派和什叶派穆斯林。也有少数犹太人和撒玛利亚人存在。当地基督徒和穆斯林,作为被边缘化的低下阶层,往往讲希腊语和阿拉伯语,而十字军则讲拉丁语,法语和其他西欧语言

            尽管地域狭小,存在时间也相对较短,王国的确切性质以及它的起源,习俗,法律和人口仍有争议。耶路撒冷王国的头衔仍然被现代的王室继续声称保有。


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            6楼2013-08-09 23:19
              好贴


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              10楼2013-08-10 10:37
                History

                The First Crusade and the foundation of the kingdom[edit]

                Main article: First Crusade

                The First Crusade was preached at the Council of Clermont in 1095 by Pope Urban II, with the goal of assisting the Byzantine Empire against the invasions of the Seljuq Turks. However, the main objective quickly became the liberation of the Holy Land. The Byzantines were frequently at war with the Seljuqs and other Turkish dynasties for control of Anatolia and Syria. The Sunni Seljuqs had formerly ruled the Great Seljuq Empire, but this empire had collapsed into several smaller states after the death of Malik-Shah I in 1092. Malik-Shah was succeeded in the Anatolian Sultanate of Rûm by Kilij Arslan I, and in Syria by his brother Tutush I, who died in 1095. Tutush's sons Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo and Damascus respectively, further dividing Syria amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other, as well as Kerbogha, the atabeg of Mosul. This disunity among the Anatolian and Syrian emirs allowed the crusaders to overcome any military opposition they faced on the way to Jerusalem.[1]

                Egypt and much of Palestine were controlled by the Arab Shi'ite Fatimid Caliphate, which had extended further into Syria before the arrival of the Seljuqs. Warfare between the Fatimids and Seljuqs caused great disruption for the local Christians and for western pilgrims. The Fatimids, under the nominal rule of caliph al-Musta'li but actually controlled by vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah, had lost Jerusalem to the Seljuqs in 1073;[2] they recaptured it in 1098 from the Artuqids, a smaller Turkish tribe associated with the Seljuqs, just before the arrival of the crusaders.[3]

                The crusaders arrived at Jerusalem in June 1099; a few of the neighbouring towns (Ramla, Lydda, Bethlehem, and others) were taken first, and Jerusalem itself was captured on July 15.[4] On 22 July, a council was held in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to establish a king for the newly created Kingdom of Jerusalem. Raymond IV of Toulouse and Godfrey of Bouillon were recognized as the leaders of the crusade and the siege of Jerusalem. Raymond was the wealthier and more powerful of the two, but at first he refused to become king, perhaps attempting to show his piety and probably hoping that the other nobles would insist upon his election anyway.[5] The more popular Godfrey did not hesitate like Raymond, and accepted a position as secular leader. Although it is widely claimed that he took the title Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri ("advocate" or "defender" of the Holy Sepulchre), this title is only used in a letter that was not written by Godfrey. Instead, Godfrey himself seems to have used the more ambiguous term princeps, or simply retained his title of dux from Lower Lorraine. According to William of Tyre, writing in the later 12th century when Godfrey had become a legendary hero, he refused to wear "a crown of gold" where Christ had worn "a crown of thorns".[6] Robert the Monk is the only contemporary chronicler of the crusade to report that Godfrey took the title "king".[7][8] Raymond was incensed and took his army to forage away from the city. The new kingdom, and Godfrey's reputation, was secured with the defeat of the Fatimid Egyptian army under al-Afdal Shahanshah at the Battle of Ascalon one month after the conquest, on August 12, but Raymond and Godfrey's continued antagonism prevented the crusaders from taking control of Ascalon itself.[9]

                There was still some uncertainty about what to do with the new kingdom. The papal legate Daimbert of Pisa convinced Godfrey to hand over Jerusalem to him as Latin Patriarch, with the intention to set up a theocratic state directly under papal control. According to William of Tyre, Godfrey may have supported Daimbert's efforts, and he agreed to take possession of "one or two other cities and thus enlarge the kingdom" if Daimbert were permitted to rule Jerusalem.[10] Godfrey did indeed increase the boundaries of the kingdom, by capturing Jaffa, Haifa, Tiberias, and other cities, and reducing many others to tributary status. He set the foundations for the system of vassalage in the kingdom, establishing the Principality of Galilee and the County of Jaffa. But his reign was short, and he died of an illness in 1100. His brother Baldwin of Boulogne successfully outmanoeuvered Daimbert and claimed Jerusalem for himself as "king of the Latins of Jerusalem". Daimbert compromised by crowning Baldwin in Bethlehem rather than Jerusalem, but the path for a secular state had been laid.[11] Within this secular framework, a Catholic church hierarchy was established, overtop of the local Eastern Orthodox and Syrian Orthodox authorities, who retained their own hierarchies (the Catholics considered them schismatics and thus illegitimate). Under the Latin Patriarch there were four suffragan archdioceses and numerous dioceses.[12]

                历史

                第一次十字军东征和王国的奠基

                正文:第一次十字军东征

                教宗乌尔班二世于1095年在克莱蒙特会议布道,第一次十字军东征由此发动,目的是协助拜占庭帝国对抗塞尔柱突厥人的入侵。然而,主要目标很快就变成了解放圣地。拜占庭经常就安纳托利亚和叙利亚的控制权与塞尔柱和其他突厥王朝之间爆发战争。逊尼派的塞尔柱人曾经统治着大塞尔柱帝国,但是1092年马立克-沙一世(Malik-Shah I)去世以后,这个帝国就崩溃为了几个较小的国家。马立克-沙在安纳托利亚的罗姆苏丹国(Sultanate of Rûm)的统治被基利杰阿尔斯兰一世(Kilij Arslan I)继承,而在叙利亚则被他死于1095年的兄弟突突什一世(Tutush I)继承。突突什的儿子法赫尔·阿尔-穆尔克·拉德万(Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan)和杜卡克(Duqaq)分别继承了阿勒颇和大马士革,使得叙利亚,包括那里的埃米尔们还有摩苏尔的阿德贝格卡布卡(Kerbogha),更加分裂和对立了。安纳托利亚和叙利亚埃米尔们的一盘散沙使得十字军能够克服他们在通向耶路撒冷的路上遇到的任何军事抵抗。

                埃及和巴勒斯坦的大部分是由在塞尔柱人到来之前就深入扩张到叙利亚的阿拉伯什叶派法蒂玛王朝的哈里发控制的。法蒂玛和塞尔柱之间的战争对当地的基督徒和西方朝圣者造成了极大的伤害。法蒂玛王朝,名义上由哈里发阿尔-穆斯塔里(al-Musta'li)统治,但实际上是由维齐尔(官职)阿尔-阿夫达·沙汉沙阿(al-Afdal Shahanshah)控制,于1073年将耶路撒冷丢给了塞尔柱人;他们又于1098年从一个与塞尔柱人有关系的较小的土耳其部落,阿尔图格人(Artuqids)手里重新占领了耶路撒冷,时间正好就在十字军到来之前。

                十字军抵达耶路撒冷是在1099年的6月;一些邻近的城镇(拉姆拉,卢德,伯利恒,以及其它的一些)在一开始就被夺取了,而耶路撒冷自己于7月15日被占领。7月22日,在圣墓教堂召开了一场会议,为新成立的耶路撒冷王国设立国王。图卢兹的雷蒙德四世和布永的哥德弗雷被确认为十字军东征和围攻耶路撒冷的领导人。两人中雷蒙德更富有也更强大,但一开始他拒绝成为国王,也许是试图证明他的虔诚以及可能认为反正其他贵族会坚持他当选。更受欢迎的哥德弗雷并不像雷蒙德那样犹豫,接受了世俗领袖的地位。尽管众所周知他取得了Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri(圣墓的“保护者”或“卫士”)的头衔,该头衔只在一封不是由哥德弗雷本人书写的信函中使用过。相反,戈弗雷自己似乎已经习惯了较为含糊的字眼“元首”,或者干脆保留了他下洛林公爵的称号。根据提尔的威廉(William of Tyre)于哥德弗雷已经成为一名传奇英雄的12世纪所写,他拒绝在基督戴上荆棘的王冠的地方戴上黄金的王冠。僧侣罗伯特(Robert the Monk)是十字军东征中唯一一个记载了哥德弗雷取得“国王”头衔的当时的编年史作家。雷蒙德被激怒了,带着他的军队粮草远离了城市。新的王国,以及哥德弗雷的名声,在次征服这一个月后的8月12日,通过在阿斯卡隆战役(Battle of Ascalon)击败阿尔-阿夫达•沙汉沙阿指挥的法蒂玛埃及军队而得以巩固,而雷蒙德与哥德弗雷的持续对立却阻止了十字军取得对阿斯卡隆本身的控制。

                该如何处置这个新王国仍有一些不确定的地方。教宗的使节比萨的戴姆伯特(Daimbert of Pisa) 意图建立一个政教合一直属于教宗控制的国家,他深信哥德弗雷会将耶路撒冷作为拉丁宗主教区交给他。根据提尔的威廉记载,哥德弗雷可能已经打算支持戴姆伯特的努力,并且如果戴姆伯特被允许统治耶路撒冷的话,他同意占领“一两个其它的城市来扩大王国”。哥德弗雷确实通过占领雅法、海法、太巴列和其他城市增加了王国的疆界,减少了许多其它沦为附庸的因素。他奠定了王国内的封建系统,建立了加利利公国和雅法伯国。但他的统治是短暂的,他于1100年病逝。他的兄弟布洛涅的鲍德温(Baldwin of Boulogne)成功地赶走了戴姆伯特,作为“耶路撒冷的拉丁人的国王”为自己取得了耶路撒冷。戴姆伯特以在伯利恒,而不是在耶路撒冷为鲍德温加冕作为妥协,但是作为一个世俗国家的道路已经奠定了。在这个世俗的框架内,一个凌驾于还保留着自己的层次结构的当地东正教和叙利亚东正教权威的天主教教会阶层被建立了(天主教会认为他们闹分裂因此是非法的)。在拉丁宗主教区下面还有四个附属的大主教区和许多教区。


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                11楼2013-08-10 23:07
                  mark


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                  来自Android客户端12楼2013-08-11 10:32
                    Expansion

                    During Baldwin I's reign the kingdom expanded even further. The numbers of Latin inhabitants increased, as the minor crusade of 1101 brought reinforcements to the kingdom. Baldwin repopulated Jerusalem with Franks and native Christians, after his expedition across the Jordan in 1115.[13] With help from the Italian city-states and other adventurers, notably King Sigurd I of Norway, Baldwin captured the port cities of Acre (1104), Beirut (1110), and Sidon (1111), while exerting his suzerainty over the other crusader states to the north – Edessa (which he had founded in 1097 during the crusade), Antioch, and Tripoli, which he helped capture in 1109. He successfully defended against Muslim invasions, from the Fatimids at the numerous battles at Ramla and elsewhere in the southwest of the kingdom, and from Damascus and Mosul at the Battle of al-Sannabra in the northeast in 1113.[14] As Thomas Madden says, Baldwin was "the true founder of the kingdom of Jerusalem", who "had transformed a tenuous arrangement into a solid feudal state. With brilliance and diligence, he established a strong monarchy, conquered the Palestinian coast, reconciled the crusader barons, and built strong frontiers against the kingdom's Muslim neighbours."[15]

                    Baldwin brought with him an Armenian wife, traditionally named Arda (although never named such by contemporaries), whom he had married to gain political support from the Armenian population in Edessa, and whom he quickly set aside when he no longer needed Armenian support in Jerusalem. He bigamously married Adelaide del Vasto, regent of Sicily, in 1113, but was convinced to divorce her as well in 1117; Adelaide's son from her first marriage, Roger II of Sicily, never forgave Jerusalem, and for decades withheld much-needed Sicilian naval support.[16]

                    Baldwin died without heirs in 1118, during a campaign against Egypt, and the kingdom was offered to his brother Eustace III of Boulogne, who had accompanied Baldwin and Godfrey on the crusade. Eustace was uninterested, and instead the crown passed to Baldwin's relative, probably a cousin, Baldwin of Le Bourg, who had previously succeeded him in Edessa. Baldwin II was an able ruler, and he too successfully defended against Fatimid and Seljuk invasions. Although Antioch was severely weakened after the Battle of Ager Sanguinis in 1119, and Baldwin himself was held captive by the emir of Aleppo from 1122–1124, Baldwin led the crusader states to victory at the Battle of Azaz in 1125. His reign saw the establishment of the first military orders, the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights Templar; the earliest surviving written laws of the kingdom, compiled at the Council of Nablus in 1120; and the first commercial treaty with Venice, the Pactum Warmundi, in 1124. The increase of naval and military support from Venice led to the capture of Tyre that year. The influence of Jerusalem was further extended over Edessa and Antioch, where Baldwin II acted as regent when their own leaders were killed in battle, although there were regency governments in Jerusalem as well during Baldwin's captivity.[17] Baldwin was married to the Armenian noblewoman Morphia of Melitene, and had four daughters: Hodierna and Alice, who married into the families of the Count of Tripoli and Prince of Antioch; Ioveta, who became an influential abbess; and the eldest, Melisende, who was his heir and succeeded him upon his death in 1131, with her husband Fulk V of Anjou as king-consort. Their son, the future Baldwin III, was named co-heir by his grandfather.[18]

                    扩张

                    在鲍德温统治的期间,王国得到了进一步扩张。当少量的1011年十字军为王国带来援军的时候,拉丁居民的数目增加了。在他1115年横跨约旦的远征之后,鲍德温让法兰克人和当地基督徒重新住进了耶路撒冷。在意大利城邦和其他冒险家,尤其是著名国王挪威的西居尔一世(Sigurd I of Norway) 的帮助下,鲍德温占领了港口城市阿克(1104年)、贝鲁特(1110年)和西顿(1111年),从而确立了他对北方的其它十字军国家——埃德萨(于1097年在十字军东征时就已建立),安条克,以及他于1109年协助占领的的黎波里的宗主权。通过在拉姆拉和王国西南其他地方与法蒂玛王朝的多次战斗,以及于1113年在东北与大马士革和摩苏尔的阿尔-散那布拉战役(Battle of al-Sannabra),他成功地抵御了穆斯林的武装入侵。正如托马斯·马登(Thomas Madden)所说,鲍德温是“耶路撒冷王国真正的奠基者”,他“已将一纸脆弱的协议变成了一个坚实的封建国家。通过才华与勤奋,他建立了一个强大的君主政治,征服了巴勒斯坦海岸,调解了十字军的男爵们,建立了强大的边境线来对抗王国的穆斯林邻居们。”

                    鲍德温带来的是一个亚美尼亚妻子,传统上被称为阿尔达(Arda)(尽管从未被当时的人们这样称呼),他娶她是为了增加来自于在埃德萨的亚美尼亚人的政治上的支持。而他在耶路撒冷不再需要亚美尼亚人支持的时候又迅速抛弃了她。没有离婚他就又于1113年娶了西西里的摄政阿德莱德·德·瓦斯托(Adelaide del Vasto),但是同样又于1117年被说服与她离婚;阿德莱德在第一次婚姻的儿子,西西里的罗杰二世(Roger II of Sicily),再也不原谅耶路撒冷,并且在后来的几十年里拒绝向其提供急需的西西里海军的支持。

                    鲍德温没有继承人就于1118年在与埃及作战的时候去世了,王国被交到了他的兄弟布洛涅的尤斯塔斯三世手里(Eustace III of Boulogne),而他在十字军东征的时候一直陪伴着鲍德温和哥德弗雷。但尤斯塔斯对此不感兴趣,取而代之王冠被传给了鲍德温的亲戚,可能是鲍德温的表亲,先前就已经从他那里继承了埃德萨的勒布尔的鲍德温(Baldwin of Le Bourg)。鲍德温是一位有能力的统治者,他极为成功地抵抗了法蒂玛和塞尔柱人的入侵。尽管安条克在1119年的血地之战(Battle of Ager Sanguinis)之后被严重削弱,鲍德温本人也被阿勒颇的埃米尔从1122年一直关押到1124年,鲍德温还是在1125年的阿塞士战役(Battle of Azaz)领导十字军国家取得了胜利。他的统治见证了第一批军事修会,医院骑士团和圣殿骑士团的建立;以及王国现存最早的成文法,于1120年由纳布卢斯理事会(Council of Nablus)编写;还有1124年的第一份与威尼斯的贸易协议,瓦蒙迪协。来自于威尼斯的海军与军事上的支持导致了提尔于当年被占领。耶路撒冷的影响力一直远达埃德萨和安条克,而在两地的领导者阵亡以后由鲍德温二世担任起了摄政,尽管鲍德温被俘期间耶路撒冷也成立了摄政政府。鲍德温与亚美尼亚的贵妇梅利泰内的莫菲娅(Morphia of Melitene)结婚,生了四个女儿:霍迪尔娜(Hodierna)和爱丽丝(Alice),嫁进了的黎波里伯爵和安条克亲王家;伊奥维塔(Ioveta),后来成了一位有影响力的修道院长;以及最年长的梅丽森德,他的继承人,和她作为君主配偶的丈夫安茹的富尔克五世(Fulk V of Anjou),在他于1131年死后继承了他。他们的儿子,未来的鲍德温三世,被他的外祖父立为共同继承人。


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                    14楼2013-08-15 21:21

                      The funeral of Baldwin I from the book: Les Passages d'outremer faits par les Français contre les Turcs depuis Charlemagne jusqu'en 1462.
                      《从查理曼到1462年离开法国对抗土耳其人的征途纪实》一书中鲍德温一世的葬礼。


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                      15楼2013-08-15 21:43
                        再补几张大图~





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                        16楼2013-08-15 21:52
                          Edessa, Damascus, and the Second Crusade

                          Main article: Second Crusade

                          Fulk was an experienced crusader, who had brought military support to the kingdom during a pilgrimage in 1120. He brought Jerusalem into the sphere of the Angevin Empire, as the father of Geoffrey V of Anjou and grandfather of the future Henry II of England. Not everyone appreciated the imposition of a foreigner as king. In 1132 Antioch, Tripoli, and Edessa all asserted their independence and conspired to prevent Fulk from exercising the suzerainty of Jerusalem over them. He defeated Tripoli in battle, and settled the regency in Antioch by arranging a marriage between the countess, Melisende's niece Constance, and his own relative Raymond of Poitiers.[19] Meanwhile, in Jerusalem, the native crusader nobles opposed Fulk's preference for his Angevin retinue. In 1134 Hugh II of Jaffa revolted against Fulk, allying with the Muslim garrison at Ascalon, for which he was convicted of treason in absentia. The Latin Patriarch intervened to settle the dispute, but an assassination attempt was then made on Hugh, for which Fulk was blamed. This scandal allowed Melisende and her supporters to gain control of the government, just as her father had intended.[20] Accordingly, Fulk "became so uxorious that...not even in unimportant cases did he take any measures without her knowledge and assistance."[21]

                          Fulk was then faced with a new and more dangerous enemy: the atabeg Zengi of Mosul, who had taken control of Aleppo and had set his sights on Damascus as well; the union of these three states would have been a serious blow to the growing power of Jerusalem. A brief intervention in 1137–1138 by the Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus, who wished to assert imperial suzerainty over all the crusader states, did nothing to stop the threat of Zengi; in 1139 Damascus and Jerusalem recognized the severity of the threat to both states, and an alliance was concluded which halted Zengi's advance. Fulk used this time to construct numerous castles, including Ibelin and Kerak.[22] After the death of both Fulk and Emperor John in separate hunting accidents in 1143, Zengi invaded and conquered Edessa in 1144. Queen Melisende, now regent for her elder son Baldwin III, appointed a new constable, Manasses of Hierges, to head the army after Fulk's death, but Edessa could not be recaptured, despite Zengi's own assassination in 1146.[23] The fall of Edessa shocked Europe, and a Second Crusade arrived in 1148.

                          After meeting in Acre in June, the crusading kings Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany agreed with Melisende, Baldwin III and the major nobles of the kingdom to attack Damascus. Zengi's territory had been divided amongst his sons after his death, and Damascus no longer felt threatened, so an alliance had been made with Zengi's son Nur ad-Din, the emir of Aleppo. Perhaps remembering attacks launched on Jerusalem from Damascus in previous decades, Damascus seemed to be the best target for the crusade, rather than Aleppo or another city to the north which would have allowed for the recapture of Edessa. The subsequent Siege of Damascus was a complete failure; when the city seemed to be on the verge of collapse, the crusader army suddenly moved against another section of the walls, and were driven back. The crusaders retreated within three days. There were rumours of treachery and bribery, and Conrad III felt betrayed by the nobility of Jerusalem. Whatever the reason for the failure, the French and German armies returned home, and a few years later Damascus was firmly under Nur ad-Din's control.[24]

                          埃德萨、大马士革,以及第二次十字军东征

                          正文:第二次十字军东征

                          富尔克是一位经验丰富的十字军战士,他于1120年朝圣的时候为王国带来了军事援助。作为安茹的若弗鲁瓦五世(Geoffrey V of Anjou)的父亲和未来英格兰的亨利二世(Henry II of England)的祖父,他将耶路撒冷纳入了安茹帝国的范围。并不是人人都能接受让一个外国人来当国王。在1132年,安条克、的黎波里和埃德萨全都坚持它们的独立性,还密谋阻止富尔克行使耶路撒冷对他们的宗主权。他在战争中击败了的黎波里,通过安排伯爵夫人梅丽森德的侄女康斯坦丝(Constance)和他自己的亲戚普瓦捷的雷蒙德(Raymond of Poitiers)的联姻,完成了对安条克的摄政。然而,在耶路撒冷,当地的十字军贵族反对富尔克对他的安茹随从的偏爱。在1134年雅法的于格二世(Hugh II of Jaffa)起来反抗富尔克,和阿斯卡隆的穆斯林驻军结盟,因此他被缺席宣判为叛国罪。拉丁宗主教干预此事试图解决争端,但是之后发生了一次针对于格的暗杀企图,这让富尔克成了众矢之的。这次丑闻让梅丽森德和她的支持者如她父亲所愿获得了对政府的控制。因此,富尔克“变得如此怕老婆以至于……没有她的知识和帮助,就算是在那些无关紧要的方面他也什么都做不了”

                          富尔克随即又面临一个新的更危险的敌人:摩苏尔的阿塔贝格赞吉(Zengi),此人已取得了对阿勒颇的控制,又将目光投放到大马士革;这三国的联合对耶路撒冷日益增长的力量来说,本该是一个沉重的打击。想要在所有十字军国家头上树立帝国的宗主权的拜占庭皇帝约翰二世·科穆宁(John II Comnenus)于1137年-1138年的一次短暂的干预也没能阻止赞吉的威胁;到1139年,大马士革和耶路撒冷都意识到了对两国的威胁的严重性,一项盟约被签订,暂停了赞吉的前进的步伐。富尔克利用这段时间修建了大量的城堡,包括伊贝林(Ibelin)和克拉克(Kerak)。在富尔克和皇帝约翰两人都于1143年在单独外出狩猎时死于事故以后,赞吉于1144年入侵并征服了埃德萨。梅丽森德王后,现在她为自己的长子鲍德温三世(Baldwin III)摄政,任命了一位新的王室总管耶尔日的马纳塞斯(Manasses of Hierges),来在富尔克死后领导军队,但是即使赞吉自己于1146年遇刺,埃德萨仍没能收复。埃德萨的陷落震惊了欧洲,第二次十字军东征于1148年抵达。

                          在六月份于阿克的会晤后,十字军国王法国的路易七世(Louis VII of France)和德国的康拉德三世(Conrad III of Germany)同意梅丽森德、鲍德温三世和王国主要贵族的想法,决定攻打大马士革。赞吉的领土在他死后被他的儿子瓜分,大马士革不再感到威胁,因此和阿勒颇的埃米尔——赞吉的儿子努尔丁结盟。也许是想起过去几十年里耶路撒冷从大马士革发起的攻击,大马士革似乎是十字军最好的目标,比阿勒颇或其他北方可供用于收复埃德萨的城市都要好。随后的大马士革围城战是一场完完全全的失败;当城市似乎已到了崩溃的边缘的时候,十字军突然转向了城墙的另一部分,并被赶了回来。十字军于三天内撤退。有背叛和贿赂的传闻流出,康拉德三世感到被耶路撒冷的贵族背叛了。无论失败的原因是什么,法国和德国军队回家了,几年后大马士革就被努尔丁牢牢地掌控住了。


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                          17楼2013-08-24 22:00
                            其实埃徳萨陷落后不久又被基督徒收复了(除了城楼)不过努尔丁又把它攻陷,并屠城了,貌似之后再没有看见埃徳萨出现了。那埃徳萨伯爵joscelin二世还蛮惨的,被努尔丁的人捉住后,被人在大街上弄瞎双眼,再在监狱中度过近十年才死。。。


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                            来自手机贴吧18楼2013-08-25 00:15
                              Civil war

                              The failure of the Second Crusade had dire long-term consequences for the kingdom. The West was hesitant to send large-scale expeditions; for the next few decades, only small armies came, headed by minor European nobles who desired to make a pilgrimage. The Muslim states of Syria were meanwhile gradually united by Nur ad-Din, who defeated the Principality of Antioch at the Battle of Inab in 1149 and gained control of Damascus in 1154. Nur ad-Din was extremely pious and during his rule the concept of jihad came to be interpreted as a kind of counter-crusade against the kingdom, which was an impediment to Muslim unity, both political and spiritual.[25]

                              In Jerusalem, the crusaders were distracted by a conflict between Melisende and Baldwin III. Melisende continued to rule as regent long after Baldwin came of age. She was supported by, among others, Manasses of Hierges, who essentially governed for her as constable; her son Amalric, whom she set up as Count of Jaffa; Philip of Milly; and the Ibelin family. Baldwin asserted his independence by mediating disputes in Antioch and Tripoli, and gained the support of the Ibelin brothers when they began to oppose Manasses' growing power, thanks to his marriage to their widowed mother Helvis of Ramla. In 1153 Baldwin had himself crowned as sole ruler, and a compromise was reached by which the kingdom was divided in two, with Baldwin taking Acre and Tyre in the north and Melisende remaining in control of Jerusalem and the cities of the south. Baldwin was able to replace Manasses with one of his own supporters, Humphrey II of Toron. Baldwin and Melisende knew that this situation was untenable. Baldwin soon invaded his mother's possessions, defeated Manasses, and besieged his mother in the Tower of David in Jerusalem. Melisende surrendered and retired to Nablus, but Baldwin appointed her his regent and chief advisor, and she retained some of her influence, especially in appointing ecclesiastical officials.[26] In 1153, Baldwin launched an offensive against Ascalon, the fortress in the south from which Fatimid Egyptian armies had continually raided Jerusalem since the foundation of the kingdom. The fortress was captured and was added to the County of Jaffa, still in the possession of his brother Amalric.[27]

                              内战

                              第二次十字军东征的失败给王国造成了可怕的长期后果。西方对发动大型远征犹豫了;在之后的几十年里,只来了少量的军队,由想要朝圣的二流欧洲贵族带领。与此同时叙利亚的穆斯林国家被努尔丁联合了起来,他在1149年的伊纳伯战役(Battle
                              of Inab)击败了安条克亲王国,又于1154年获得了对大马士革的控制。努尔丁非常虔诚,在他统治时期圣战的概念被解释为了一种对抗王国的反十字军行为,而这个王国无论是在政治上还是精神上,都是一个阻碍穆斯林团结的障碍。

                              在耶路撒冷,梅丽森德和鲍德温三世之间的冲突分散了十字军的注意力。鲍德温成年后,梅丽森德仍作为摄政者长期统治。她得到一些人的支持,其中包括耶尔日的马纳塞斯,此人实质上作为王室总管为她进行管理;她的儿子阿马尔里克(Amalric),她封他为雅法伯爵;米利的菲利普(Philip of Milly);以及伊贝林家族。鲍德温通过调解安条克和的黎波里之间的争端来维护他的独立性,又在伊贝林兄弟开始反对马纳塞斯由于娶了他们的寡母,拉姆拉的赫尔维斯(Helvis of Ramla)而逐渐膨胀的权力的时候,获得了他们的支持。1153年鲍德温将自己加冕为唯一的统治者,作为折中方案王国被一分为二,鲍德温获得了北方的阿克和提尔,而梅丽森德仍控制着耶路撒冷和南部的城市。通过他的一位支持者,多隆的汉弗莱二世(Humphrey II of Toron),鲍德温得以取代梅丽森德。鲍德温和梅丽森德知道这样的局面是无法维持下去的。鲍德温很快就侵入了他母亲的领地,击败了梅丽森德,并把他的母亲围困在耶路撒冷的大卫塔(Tower of David)中。梅丽森德投降了,引退到纳布卢斯,但是鲍德温任命她做他的摄政和首席顾问,而她也保留了她的一些影响力,尤其是在任命教会官员方面。1153年,鲍德温向南部要塞阿斯卡隆发起进攻,自王国建立起法蒂玛埃及的军队就不断从那里袭击耶路撒冷。要塞被占领,并被纳入仍由他兄弟阿马尔里克占有的雅法伯国。


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                              21楼2013-08-31 20:27

                                Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus, who became a close ally of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
                                拜占庭皇帝曼努埃尔一世·科穆宁,此人成为了耶路撒冷王国的一位亲密盟友。


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                                22楼2013-08-31 20:27
                                  Byzantine alliance and invasion of Egypt

                                  With the capture of Ascalon the southern border of the kingdom was now secure, and Egypt, formerly a major threat to the kingdom but now destabilized under the reign of several underaged caliphs, was reduced to a tributary state. Nur ad-Din remained a threat in the east, and Baldwin had to contend with the advances of Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus, who claimed suzerainty over the Principality of Antioch. In order to bolster the defences of the kingdom against the growing strength of the Muslims, Baldwin III made the first direct alliance with the Byzantine Empire, by marrying Theodora Comnena, a niece of emperor Manuel; Manuel married Baldwin's cousin Maria.[28] As William of Tyre put it, it was hoped that Manuel would be able "to relieve from his own abundance the distress under which our realm was suffering and to change our poverty into superabundance".[29]

                                  When Baldwin died childless in 1162, a year after his mother Melisende, the kingdom passed to his brother Amalric, who renewed the alliance negotiated by Baldwin. In 1163 the chaotic situation in Egypt led to a refusal to pay tribute to Jerusalem, and requests were sent to Nur ad-Din for assistance; in response, Amalric invaded, but was turned back when the Egyptians flooded the Nile at Bilbeis. The Egyptian vizier Shawar again requested help from Nur ad-Din, who sent his general Shirkuh, but Shawar quickly turned against him and allied with Amalric. Amalric and Shirkuh both besieged Bilbeis in 1164, but both withdrew due to Nur ad-Din's campaigns against Antioch, where Bohemond III of Antioch and Raymond III of Tripoli were defeated at the Battle of Harim. It seemed likely that Antioch itself would fall to Nur ad-Din, but he withdrew when Emperor Manuel sent a large Byzantine force to the area. Nur ad-Din sent Shirkuh back to Egypt in 1166, and Shawar again allied with Amalric, who was defeated at the Battle of al-Babein. Despite the defeat, both sides withdrew, but Shawar remained in control with a crusader garrison in Cairo.[30] Amalric cemented his alliance with Manuel by marrying Manuel's niece Maria Komnene in 1167, and an embassy led by William of Tyre was sent to Constantinople to negotiate a military expedition, but in 1168 Amalric pillaged Bilbeis without waiting for the naval support promised by Manuel. Amalric accomplished nothing else, but his actions prompted Shawar to switch sides again and seek help from Shirkuh. Shawar was promptly assassinated, and when Shirkuh died in 1169, he was succeeded by his nephew Yusuf, better known as Saladin. That year, Manuel sent a large Byzantine fleet of some 300 ships to assist Amalric, and the town of Damietta was placed under siege. However, the Byzantine fleet sailed with enough provisions for only three months. By the time that the crusaders were ready supplies were already running out and the fleet retired. Each side sought to blame the other for the failure, but both knew that they could not take Egypt without the other's assistance: the alliance was maintained, and plans for another campaign in Egypt were made, which ultimately were to come to naught.[31]

                                  In the end, Nur ad-Din was victorious and Saladin established himself as Sultan of Egypt. Saladin soon began to assert his independence from Nur ad-Din, and with the death of both Amalric and Nur ad-Din in 1174, he was well-placed to begin exerting control over Nur ad-Din's Syrian possessions as well.[32] Upon the death of the pro-western Emperor Manuel in 1180, the Kingdom of Jerusalem lost its most powerful ally.

                                  与拜占庭结盟及入侵埃及

                                  随着阿斯卡隆的占领,王国的南部边境现在安全了,而埃及,曾经是王国的主要威胁,现在却在几任年少的哈里发的统治下变得不稳定,沦为了一个附庸国。努尔丁仍是东部的一个威胁,而鲍德温还得抗衡拜占庭皇帝曼努埃尔一世·科穆宁(Manuel I Comnenus)的步步紧逼,后者宣称对安条克亲王国拥有宗主权。为了加强王国对实力不断壮大的穆斯林的防御,通过迎娶狄奥多拉•科穆内娜(Theodora Comnene),曼努埃尔皇帝的一位侄女,鲍德温首次直接与拜占庭帝国结盟;曼努埃尔迎娶了鲍德温的表妹玛丽亚。正如提尔的威廉所记,这么做本来是希望曼努埃尔能够“通过他的富裕解救让我们受苦的苦难,并让我们由贫穷变得富足。”

                                  当鲍德温在他母亲死后一年,于1162年无嗣而终时,王国被传给了他的兄弟阿马尔里克(Amalric),他延续了鲍德温订下的盟约。1163年埃及的混乱局面导致其拒绝再向耶路撒冷纳贡,并向努尔丁请求援助;作为回应,阿马尔里克发动了入侵,但是却被埃及人在比勒拜斯(Bilbeis)挖开尼罗河放出洪水赶了回去。埃及大臣沙瓦(Shawar)再次向努尔丁请求帮助,后者派出了他的将军谢尔库赫(Shirkuh),但是沙瓦很快就与他对立并与阿马尔里克结盟。阿马尔里克和谢尔库赫都于1164年围攻了比勒拜斯,但是都由于努尔丁进攻安条克而撤退了,在那里安条克的博希蒙德三世(Bohemond III of Antioch)和的黎波里的雷蒙德三世(Raymond III of Tripoli)于哈里姆战役(Battle of Harim)被击败。似乎安条克自身都要被努尔丁攻陷了,但是当曼努埃尔皇帝向该地区派出一支拜占庭大军以后他撤退了。努尔丁于1166年将谢尔库赫派回埃及,而沙瓦再一次和在阿尔-巴贝因战役(Battle of al-Babein)中战败的阿马尔里克结盟。尽管战败,两边都撤退了,沙瓦仍然被驻扎在开罗的一支十字军控制着。通过于1167年迎娶曼努埃尔的侄女玛丽亚•科穆内娜(Maria Komnene),阿马尔里克巩固了他和曼努埃尔的联盟,一个由提尔的威廉率领的使团被派到君士坦丁堡以商讨一次远征,但是等不及曼努埃尔承诺的海军援助,阿马尔里克就于1168年洗劫了比勒拜斯。除此之外阿马尔里克一事无成,而他的行动却促使沙瓦又一次改变了立场,转而向谢尔库赫寻求帮助。沙瓦立刻遭到暗杀,而谢尔库赫于1169年去世的时候,由他的侄子尤素福继承了他,即更加广为人知的萨拉丁。那年,曼努埃尔派出了一支由大约300艘舰船组成的庞大的拜占庭舰队来支援阿马尔里克,杜姆亚特(Damietta)镇在围攻中沦陷。然而,即使携带了足够的食物,拜占庭舰队最多也只能航行三个月。这时十字军准备的辎重耗尽,舰队也撤退了。两边都试图将失败的原因怪罪到对方头上,但是两边都知道没有对方的协助他们就无法拿下埃及。联盟被维持了下来,又一次在埃及的行动计划被制定,但最终还是不了了之。

                                  最终,努尔丁胜利了,而萨拉丁将自己立为埃及苏丹。萨拉丁很快宣称自己独立于努尔丁,而随着阿马尔里克和努尔丁于1174年相继死去,他也开始占尽天时地利地对努尔丁的叙利亚领地施加控制。随着亲西方的曼努埃尔皇帝于1180年去世,耶路撒冷王国失去了它最强大的盟友。


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                                  23楼2013-09-05 18:35
                                    Baldwin IV and the succession crisis

                                    Amalric was succeeded by his young son, Baldwin IV, who was discovered at a very young age to be a leper. The subsequent events have often been interpreted as a struggle between two opposing factions, the "court party", made up of Baldwin's mother, Amalric's first wife Agnes of Courtenay, her immediate family, and recent arrivals from Europe who were inexperienced in the affairs of the kingdom and who were in favour of war with Saladin; and the "noble party", led by Raymond of Tripoli and the lesser nobility of the kingdom, who favoured peaceful co-existence with the Muslims. This is the interpretation offered by William of Tyre, who was firmly placed in the "noble" camp, and his view was taken up by subsequent historians; in the 20th century, Marshall W. Baldwin,[33] Steven Runciman,[34] and Hans E. Mayer[35] favoured this interpretation. Peter W. Edbury, on the other hand, argues that William, as well as the thirteenth-century authors who continued William's chronicle in French and were allied to Raymond's supporters in the Ibelin family, cannot be considered impartial.[36] Although the events were clearly a dynastic struggle, "the division was not between native barons and newcomers from the West, but between the king's maternal and paternal kin."[37]

                                    Miles of Plancy was briefly bailli or regent during Baldwin IV's minority. Miles was assassinated in October 1174, and Count Raymond III of Tripoli, Amalric's first cousin, became regent. It is highly probable that Raymond or his supporters engineered the assassination.[38] Baldwin reached his majority in 1176, and despite his illness he no longer had any legal need for a regent. Since Raymond was his nearest relative in the male line with a strong claim to the throne, there was concern about the extent of his ambitions, although he had no direct heirs of his own. To balance this, the king turned from time to time to his uncle, Joscelin III of Edessa, who was appointed seneschal in 1176; Joscelin was more closely related to Baldwin than Raymond was, but had no claim to the throne himself.[39]

                                    As a leper, Baldwin could have no children and could not be expected to rule much longer, so the focus of his succession passed to his sister Sibylla and his younger half-sister Isabella. Baldwin and his advisors recognised that it was essential for Sibylla to be married to a Western nobleman in order to access support from Europe in a military crisis; while Raymond was still regent, a marriage was arranged for Sibylla and William of Montferrat, a cousin of Louis VII of France and of Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor. It was hoped that by allying with a relative of the western emperor, Frederick would come to the kingdom's aid.[40] Jerusalem looked again towards the Byzantine Empire for help, and Emperor Manuel was looking for a way to restore his empire's prestige after his defeat at the Battle of Myriokephalon in 1176; this mission was undertaken by Raynald of Châtillon.[41] After William of Montferrat arrived in 1176, he fell ill and died in June 1177, leaving Sibylla widowed and pregnant with the future Baldwin V. Raynald was then named regent.[42]

                                    Soon afterwards, Philip of Flanders arrived in Jerusalem on pilgrimage; he was Baldwin IV's cousin, and the king offered him the regency and command of the army, both of which Philip refused, although he objected to the appointment of Raynald as regent. Philip then attempted to intervene in the negotiations for Sibylla's second husband, and suggested one of his own retinue, but the native barons refused his suggestion. In addition, Philip seemed to think he could carve out a territory of his own in Egypt, but he refused to participate with the planned Byzantine-Jerusalem expedition. The expedition was delayed and finally cancelled, and Philip took his army away to the north.[43]

                                    Most of the army of Jerusalem marched north with Philip, Raymond III, and Bohemond III to attack Hama, and Saladin took the opportunity to invade the kingdom. Baldwin proved to be an effective and energetic king as well as being a brilliant military commander: he defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard in September 1177 despite being greatly outnumbered and having to rely on a levee-en-masse. Although Baldwin's presence despite his illness was inspirational, direct military decisions were actually made by Raynald.[44]

                                    Hugh III of Burgundy was expected to come to Jerusalem and marry Sibylla, but Hugh was unable to leave France due to the political unrest there in 1179–1180 following the death of Louis VII. Meanwhile, Baldwin IV's stepmother Maria, mother of Isabella and stepmother of Sibylla, married Balian of Ibelin. At Easter in 1180, Raymond and his cousin Bohemond III of Antioch attempted to force Sibylla to marry Balian's brother Baldwin of Ibelin. Raymond and Bohemond were King Baldwin's nearest male relatives in the paternal line, and could have claimed the throne if the king died without an heir or a suitable replacement. Before Raymond and Bohemond arrived, Agnes and King Baldwin arranged for Sibylla to be married to a Poitevin newcomer, Guy of Lusignan, whose older brother Amalric of Lusignan was already an established figure at court.[45] Internationally, the Lusignans were useful as vassals of Baldwin and Sibylla's cousin Henry II of England. Baldwin betrothed eight-year-old Isabella to Humphrey IV of Toron, stepson of the powerful Raynald of Châtillon, thereby removing her from the influence of the Ibelin family and that of her mother.[46]

                                    The dispute between the two factions in the kingdom affected the election of a new Patriarch in 1180. When Patriarch Amalric died on 6 October 1180, the two most obvious choices for his successor were William of Tyre and Heraclius of Caesarea. They were fairly evenly matched in background and education, but politically they were allied with opposite parties, as Heraclius was one of Agnes of Courtenay's supporters. The canons of the Holy Sepulchre asked the king for advice, and Heraclius was chosen through Agnes' influence. There were rumours that Agnes and Heraclius were lovers, but this information comes from the partisan 13th-century continuations of William of Tyre's history, and there is no other evidence to substantiate such a claim.[47]


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                                    24楼2013-09-07 18:10
                                      At the end of 1181, Raynald of Châtillon raided south into Arabia, in the direction of Medina, although he did not make it that far. It was probably around this time that Raynald also attacked a Muslim caravan. The kingdom had a truce with Saladin at the time, and Raynald's actions have been seen as an independent act of brigandage; it is possible that he was trying to prevent Saladin from moving his forces north to take control of Aleppo, which would have strengthened Saladin's position.[48] In response, Saladin attacked the kingdom in 1182, but was defeated at Belvoir Castle. King Baldwin, although quite ill, was still able to command the army in person. Saladin attempted to besiege Beirut from land and sea, and Baldwin raided Damascene territory, but neither side did significant damage. In December 1182, Raynald launched a naval expedition on the Red Sea, which made it as far south as Rabigh. The expedition was defeated and two of Raynald's men were actually taken to Mecca to be executed in public. Like his earlier raids, Raynald's expedition is usually seen as selfish and ultimately fatal for Jerusalem, but according to Bernard Hamilton it was actually shrewd strategy, meant to damage Saladin's prestige and reputation.[49]

                                      In 1183 a general tax was levied throughout the kingdom, which was unprecedented in Jerusalem and almost all of medieval Europe to that point. The tax helped pay for larger armies for the next few years. More troops were certainly needed, since Saladin was finally able to gain control of Aleppo, and with peace in his northern territories he could focus on Jerusalem in the south. King Baldwin was so incapacitated by his leprosy that it was necessary to appoint a regent, and Guy of Lusignan was chosen, as he was Baldwin's legal heir and the king was not expected to live. The inexperienced Guy led the Frankish army against Saladin's incursions into the kingdom, but neither side made any real gains, and Guy was criticized by his opponents for not striking against Saladin when he had the chance.[50]

                                      In October 1183 Isabella married Humphrey of Toron at Kerak, during a siege by Saladin, who perhaps hoped to take some valuable prisoners. As King Baldwin, although now blind and crippled, had recovered enough to resume his reign and his command of the army, Guy was removed from the regency and his five-year-old son, King Baldwin's nephew and namesake Baldwin, was crowned as co-king in November. King Baldwin himself then went to relieve the castle, carried on a litter, and attended by his mother. He was reconciled with Raymond of Tripoli and appointed him military commander. The siege was lifted in December and Saladin retreated to Damascus.[51] Saladin attempted another siege in 1184, but Baldwin repelled that attack as well, and Saladin raided Nablus and other towns on the way home.[52]

                                      In October 1184, Guy of Lusignan led an attack on the Bedouin nomads from his base in Ascalon. Unlike Raynald's attacks on caravans, which may have had some military purpose, Guy attacked a group that was usually loyal to Jerusalem and provided intelligence about the movements of Saladin's troops. At the same time, King Baldwin contracted his final illness and Raymond of Tripoli, rather than Guy, was appointed as his regent. His nephew Baldwin was paraded in public, wearing his crown as Baldwin V. Baldwin IV finally succumbed to his leprosy in May 1185.[53]

                                      Meanwhile, the succession crisis had prompted a mission to the west to seek assistance. In 1184, Patriarch Heraclius travelled throughout the courts of Europe, but no help was forthcoming. Heraclius offered the "keys of the Holy Sepulchre, those of the Tower of David and the banner of the Kingdom of Jerusalem", but not the crown itself, to both Philip II of France and Henry II of England; the latter, as a grandson of Fulk, was a first cousin of the royal family of Jerusalem, and had promised to go on crusade after the murder of Thomas Becket. Both kings preferred to remain at home to defend their own territories, rather than act as regent for a child in Jerusalem. The few European knights who did travel to Jerusalem did not even see any combat, since the truce with Saladin had been re-established. William V of Montferrat was one of the few who came to his grandson Baldwin V's aid.[54]

                                      Baldwin V's rule, with Raymond of Tripoli as regent and his great-uncle Joscelin of Edessa as his guardian, was short. He was a sickly child and died in the summer of 1186. Raymond and his supporters went to Nablus, presumably in an attempt to prevent Sibylla from claiming the throne, but Sibylla and her supporters went to Jerusalem, where it was decided that the kingdom should pass to her, on the condition that her marriage to Guy be annulled. She agreed but only if she could choose her own husband and king, and after being crowned, she immediately crowned Guy with her own hands. Raymond had refused to attend the coronation, and in Nablus he suggested that Isabella and Humphrey should be crowned instead, but Humphrey refused to agree to this plan which would have certainly started a civil war. Humphrey went to Jerusalem and swore allegiance to Guy and Sibylla, as did most of Raymond's other supporters. Raymond himself refused to do so and left for Tripoli; Baldwin of Ibelin also refused, gave up his fiefs, and left for Antioch.[55]


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                                      25楼2013-09-07 18:12
                                        鲍德温四世和继承危机

                                        阿马尔里克由他的幼子鲍德温四世(Baldwin IV)继承,但后者在很小的时候就被发现是一个麻风病人。随后的一连串事件经常被解释为两大对立派系之间的斗争,“宫廷党”,由鲍德温的母亲,阿马尔里克的的第一任妻子库特奈的阿格尼丝(Agnes of Courtenay),她的直系亲属,以及对王国的事务缺乏经验,赞成对萨拉丁开战的刚从欧洲过来的人组成;而“贵族党”,由的黎波里的雷蒙德和王国的小贵族领导,赞成与穆斯林和平共处。这是提尔的威廉提供的解释,他坚定地站在“贵族”阵营这一边,而他的观点被后来的历史学家所采纳;在20世纪,马歇尔•W•鲍德温(Marshall W. Baldwin),史蒂芬•朗西曼(Steven Runciman),和汉斯•梅耶(Hans E. Mayer),都赞成这一解释。另一方面,彼得•W•艾德布里(Peter W. Edbury),对威廉以及13世纪在法国续写威廉的编年史的作家有争议,认为他们与伊贝林家族中雷蒙德的支持者们结盟,不能被认为是公正的。虽然这些事情显然是一场王朝的内斗,“这场分裂不是发生在本地男爵和西方新来者之间,而是发生在国王的母系和父系亲属之间的。”

                                        普朗西的迈尔斯(Miles of Plancy)曾在鲍德温四世成年以前短暂地担任代理人和摄政。迈尔斯于1174年十月遇刺,而的黎波里的雷蒙德三世伯爵,阿马尔里克的大表弟成为了摄政。有很大的可能是雷蒙德和他的支持者们策划了这起暗杀。1176年鲍德温成年了,尽管生病,在法律上他也不需要一位摄政了。尽管雷蒙德作为他最近的父系亲属对王位有着强烈的渴求,仍有人对其野心有所关注,哪怕他没有自己的直系继承人。为了平衡这一点,国王时不时地倒向他的舅舅,于1176年被任命为管家的埃德萨的约瑟林三世(Joscelin III of Edessa);约瑟林和鲍德温的亲缘关系比雷蒙德更近,但他自己并不想得到王位。

                                        作为一个麻风病人,鲍德温不可能有孩子,也不可能指望能统治很久,所以他的继承问题的焦点落在了他的姐姐茜贝拉和他同父异母的妹妹伊莎贝拉的身上。鲍德温和他的顾问们认识到有必要让茜贝拉嫁给一位西方贵族,以便在发生军事危机时从欧洲获得援助;然而雷蒙德仍然在摄政,一场茜贝拉和蒙特费拉的威廉(William of Montferrat)之间的婚姻被安排下来,后者是法王路易七世和神圣罗马帝国皇帝腓特烈•巴巴罗萨的表亲。本来指望通过和西方皇帝的亲戚结盟,腓特烈能够成为王国的外援。耶路撒冷再次向拜占庭帝国寻求帮助,而皇帝曼努埃尔也在寻求一个方法来恢复他在1176年密列奥塞法隆战役(Battle of Myriokephalon)失败后的帝国的威望;这一使命被沙蒂永的雷纳德(Raynald of Châtillon)承担。在蒙特费拉的威廉于1176年抵达以后,他生了病,并于1177年去世,将腹中怀有未来的鲍德温五世(Baldwin V)的茜贝拉一人留下。雷纳德之后被任命为摄政。

                                        不久之后,弗兰德的菲利普(Philip of Flanders)来耶路撒冷朝圣;他是鲍德温四世的表亲,国王想让他摄政和指挥军队,但这两者菲利普都拒绝了,尽管他反对任命雷纳德为摄政。菲利普之后试图介入为茜贝拉找第二个丈夫的谈判,并推荐了他自己的一位随从,但本地的男爵们拒绝了他的提议。此外,菲利普似乎认为他能够在埃及开拓出一片属于他自己的领土,但他拒绝参加已经计划好的拜占庭-耶路撒冷联合远征。远征被推迟,并最终被取消,而菲利普带着他的军队离开去了北方。

                                        耶路撒冷的大部分军队随菲利普开到了北方,雷蒙德三世,以及博希蒙德三世要进攻哈马(Hama),而萨拉丁则趁机入侵王国。鲍德温被证明是一位积极能干的国王和一位杰出的军事指挥官:他在1177年九月的蒙吉萨战役(Battle of Montgisard)中击败萨拉丁,尽管数量悬殊,不得不依靠全民动员。虽然生病,鲍德温的存在仍然鼓舞了士气,但直接的军事决策实际上是由雷纳德作出的。

                                        本来计划是勃艮第的于格三世(Hugh III of Burgundy)来耶路撒冷和茜贝拉成婚的,但是由于路易七世(Louis VII)去世后的1179-1180年的政治动荡导致于格无法离开法国。同时,鲍德温四世的继母玛丽亚,伊莎贝拉的母亲和茜贝拉的继母,嫁给了伊贝林的巴利安(Balian of Ibelin)。在1180年的复活节,雷蒙德和他的表亲安条克的博希蒙德三世试图迫使茜贝拉嫁给巴利安的哥哥伊贝林的鲍德温(Baldwin of Ibelin)。雷蒙德和博希蒙德是鲍德温国王最近的男性父系亲属,并且有可能在国王没有一位继承人或合适的替代人选就去世的情况下争取王位。在雷蒙德和博希蒙德抵达之前,阿格尼丝和鲍德温国王就安排茜贝拉嫁给了一个普瓦图的新来者,吕西尼昂的居伊(Guy of Lusignan),他的哥哥吕西尼昂的阿马尔里克(Amalric of Lusignan)已经是一个在宫廷里站稳了脚跟的人物了。就国际形势来说,作为鲍德温和茜贝拉的表亲英格兰的亨利二世(Henry II of England)的臣下,吕西尼昂兄弟是有用的。鲍德温将八岁的伊莎贝拉许配给多隆的汉弗莱四世(Humphrey IV of Toron),强大的沙蒂永的雷纳德的继子,从而消除伊贝林家族和她母亲对她的影响。

                                        王国中两大派系的纷争影响了1180年新宗主教的选举。当宗主教阿马尔里克于1180年10月6日去世的时候,两个最热门的继承人选是提尔的威廉和凯撒利亚的希拉克略(Heraclius of Caesarea)。在背景和教育方面他们相当的势均力敌,但由于希拉克略是库特奈的阿格尼丝的支持者之一,因此在政治上他们分别结盟于对立的党派。圣幕大教堂的教士们向国王征求意见,而由于阿格尼丝影响,希拉克略最终当选。有传言称阿格尼丝和希拉克略是恋人,但这一信息来源于13世纪有偏袒性的后人续写提尔的威廉历史的续篇,而且也没有其他的证据来证实这种说法。

                                        在1181年底,沙蒂永的雷纳德袭击了阿拉伯半岛的南部,兵锋直指麦地那(Medina),尽管他没有打到那么远。可能就在这个时候,雷纳德还袭击了一支穆斯林马队。当时王国正与萨拉丁休战,而雷纳德的行动被视为一起独立的劫掠行为;很可能他是试图防止萨拉丁把他的军队开到北方攻取阿勒颇,这将加强萨拉丁的地位。作为回应,萨拉丁于1182年向王国进攻,但在贝尔沃城堡(Belvoir Castle)被击败。鲍德温国王,虽然病得很厉害,仍能够亲自指挥军队。萨拉丁试图从海陆两方围攻贝鲁特,而鲍德温则袭击了大马士革领地,但两边都没造成重大的破坏。在1182年十二月,雷纳德在红海发起了一次海军远征,向南一直抵达拉比格(Rabigh)。这次远征被击败,而实际上两个雷纳德的人被带到麦加(Mecca)公开处决。如同他早先的袭击行动,雷纳德的远征通常被视为是自私的,同时对耶路撒冷来说也是最终致命的,但是根据伯纳德•汉密尔顿(Bernard Hamilton)的说法,它实际上是精明的策略,旨在损害萨拉丁的威信和声誉。

                                        1183年在全王国征收了一项一般税,这在耶路撒冷是史无前例的,这一点甚至对几乎整个中世纪欧洲来说都是如此。这项税收帮助供养了未来几年里日益庞大的军队。更多的部队当然是必需的,由于萨拉丁最终得以控制阿勒颇,并且随着他的北方领土归于安定,使他能够专注于南方的耶路撒冷。国王鲍德温由于他的麻风病无法理政,以至于任命一位摄政是如此的必要,而吕西尼昂的居伊被选中了,因为他是国王的法定继承人而国王估计已经活不了多久了。毫无经验的居伊领导法兰克军队对抗萨拉丁对王国的入侵,但两边都没捞到什么实际的好处,而居伊则被他的反对者们批评当他有机会的时候没有对萨拉丁发起攻击。

                                        在1183年十月,伊莎贝拉在克拉克(Kerak)嫁给了多隆的汉弗莱,正好遇上萨拉丁的围攻,后者可能是希望抓一些有价值的俘虏。当国王鲍德温,尽管现在又瞎又瘸,却已经康复到足以恢复他的统治和对军队的指挥的时候,居伊被免除了摄政的职务,而他5岁的儿子,鲍德温国王同名的外甥鲍德温,于11月被加冕为共王。之后鲍德温国王亲自去给城堡解围,由担架抬着,并由他母亲照顾。他与的黎波里的雷蒙德和解,并任命他为军队指挥官。围城于十二月解除而萨拉丁撤回了大马士革。萨拉丁于1184年试着发起了另一次围攻,但鲍德温又一次击退了进攻,而萨拉丁在回师途中袭击了纳布卢斯和其它的一些城镇。

                                        1184年十月,吕西尼昂的居伊从他在阿斯卡隆的基地领导了一场对贝都因游牧民的攻击。不像雷纳德对马队的攻击,也许还有些军事目的,居伊攻击了一个通常是忠于耶路撒冷并提供有关萨拉丁军队动向情报的群落。同时,国王鲍德温最后一次染病,而的黎波里的雷蒙德,而不是居伊,被指定为他的摄政。他的外甥作为鲍德温五世戴着王冠被带到公开场合露面。鲍德温四世最终于1185年五月因麻风病逝世。

                                        与此同时,继承危机促使一支代表团被派到西方寻求帮助。在1184年,宗主教希拉克略走遍了欧洲宫廷,但是没得到任何帮助。希拉克略向法王菲利普二世和英王亨利二世提供“圣墓的钥匙,还有大卫塔的,以及耶路撒冷王国的旗帜”,而不是王冠;后者,作为富尔克的孙子,是耶路撒冷王室的嫡堂兄弟,在托马斯•贝克特(Thomas Becket)被谋杀后答应参加十字军。两位国王都更倾向于留在家里保卫自己的领土,而不是给耶路撒冷的某个小孩当摄政。少数确实抵达耶路撒冷的欧洲骑士甚至没有看到任何战斗,因为与萨拉丁的休战已经被签订了。蒙特费拉的威廉五世(William V of Montferrat)是少数前去帮助他孙子鲍德温五世的人之一。

                                        鲍德温五世的统治,由的黎波里的雷蒙德作为摄政和他的舅公埃德萨的约瑟林作为监护人,是短暂的。他是个病弱的孩子,死于1186年夏天。雷蒙德和他的支持者们去了纳布卢斯,据推测是为了防止茜贝拉自称为王,但茜贝拉和她的支持者们去了耶路撒冷,在那里王国被决定传给她,条件是她与居伊的婚姻作废。她同意了,但条件是她能够选择自己的丈夫和国王,而在加冕以后,她立刻就亲手为居伊加冕。雷蒙德曾拒绝出席加冕,在纳布卢斯他建议伊莎贝拉和汉弗莱应该加冕取而代之,但汉弗莱拒绝同意这个计划,因为这一定会引发一场内战。汉弗莱去耶路撒冷向居伊和茜贝拉宣誓效忠,就像雷蒙德的其他大部分的支持者所做的那样。雷蒙德自己拒绝这么做,离开去了的黎波里;伊贝林的鲍德温也拒绝了,放弃了他的封地,离开去了安条克。


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                                        26楼2013-09-07 18:14

                                          Jan Lievens's painting of Saladin (ca. 1138 — 1193) holding Guy of Lusignan (c. 1150 – 1194) captive in golden chains. Mark the royal Islamic green clothing and the royal Christian red clothing.

                                          让·利文斯的画作,画的是萨拉丁(约公元1138 - 1193)用黄金锁链锁住被俘的吕西尼昂的居伊(约1150 - 1194)。绿衣标记了穆斯林王室,红衣标记了基督徒王室。


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                                          27楼2013-09-07 18:33
                                            Loss of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade

                                            Main article: Third Crusade

                                            Raymond of Tripoli allied with Saladin against Guy and allowed a Muslim garrison to occupy his fief in Tiberias, probably hoping that Saladin would help him overthrow Guy. Saladin, meanwhile, had pacified his Mesopotamian territories, and was now eager to attack the crusader kingdom; he did not intend to renew the truce when it expired in 1187. Before the truce expired, Raynald of Chatillon, the lord of Oultrejourdain and of Kerak and one of Guy's chief supporters, recognized that Saladin was massing his troops, and attacked Muslim caravans in an attempt to disrupt this. Guy was on the verge of attacking Raymond, but realized that the kingdom would need to be united in the face of the threat from Saladin, and Balian of Ibelin effected a reconciliation between the two during Easter in 1187. Saladin attacked Kerak again in April, and in May, a Muslim raiding party ran into the much smaller embassy on its way to negotiate with Raymond, and defeated it at the Battle of Cresson near Nazareth. Raymond and Guy finally agreed to attack Saladin at Tiberias, but could not agree on a plan; Raymond thought a pitched battle should be avoided, but Guy probably remembered the criticism he faced for avoiding battle in 1183, and it was decided to march out against Saladin directly. On July 4, 1187, the army of the kingdom was utterly destroyed at the Battle of Hattin. Raymond of Tripoli, Balian of Ibelin, and Reginald of Sidon escaped, but Raynald was executed by Saladin and Guy was imprisoned in Damascus.[56]

                                            Over the next few months Saladin easily overran the entire kingdom. Only the port of Tyre remained in Frankish hands, defended by Conrad of Montferrat, the paternal uncle of Baldwin V, who had coincidentally arrived just in time from Constantinople. The fall of Jerusalem essentially ended the first Kingdom of Jerusalem. Much of the population, swollen with refugees fleeing Saladin's conquest of the surrounding territory, was allowed to flee to Tyre, Tripoli, or Egypt (whence they were sent back to Europe), but those who could not pay for their freedom were sold into slavery, and those who could were often robbed by Christians and Muslims alike on their way into exile. The capture of the city led to the Third Crusade, launched in 1189 and led by Richard the Lionheart, Philip Augustus and Frederick Barbarossa, though the last drowned en route.[57]

                                            Guy of Lusignan, who had been refused entry to Tyre by Conrad, began to besiege Acre in 1189. During the lengthy siege, which lasted until 1191, Patriarch Heraclius, Queen Sibylla and her daughters, and many others died of disease. With the death of Sibylla in 1190, Guy now had no legal claim to the kingship, and the succession passed to Sibylla's half-sister Isabella. Isabella's mother Maria and the Ibelins (now closely allied to Conrad) argued that Isabella and Humphrey's marriage was illegal, as she had been underage at the time; underlying this was the fact that Humphrey had betrayed his wife's cause in 1186. The marriage was annulled amid some controversy. Conrad, who was now the nearest kinsman to Baldwin V in the male line, and had already proved himself a capable military leader, then married Isabella, but Guy refused to concede the crown.[58]

                                            When Richard arrived in 1191, he and Philip took different sides in the succession dispute. Richard backed Guy, his vassal from Poitou, while Philip supported Conrad, a cousin of his late father Louis VII. After much ill-feeling and ill-health, Philip returned home in 1191, soon after the fall of Acre. Richard defeated Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf in 1191 and the Battle of Jaffa in 1192, recovering most of the coast, but could not recover Jerusalem or any of the inland territory of the kingdom. It has been suggested that this may have actually been a strategic decision by Richard rather than a failure as such, as he may have recognized that Jerusalem in particular was in fact a strategic liability as long as the crusaders were obligated to defend it, as it was isolated from the sea where Western reinforcements could arrive.[59] Conrad was unanimously elected king in April 1192, but was murdered by the Hashshashin only days later. Eight days after that, the pregnant Isabella was married to Count Henry II of Champagne, nephew of Richard and Philip, but politically allied to Richard. As compensation, Richard sold Guy the island of Cyprus, which Richard had captured on the way to Acre, although Guy continued to claim the throne of Jerusalem until his death in 1194.[60]

                                            The crusade came to an end peacefully, with the Treaty of Ramla negotiated in 1192; Saladin allowed pilgrimages to be made to Jerusalem, allowing the crusaders to fulfill their vows, after which they all returned home. The native crusader barons set about rebuilding their kingdom from Acre and the other coastal cities.


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                                            28楼2013-10-16 20:21
                                              耶路撒冷的陷落与第三次十字军东征

                                              正文:第三次十字军东征

                                              的黎波里的雷蒙德与萨拉丁结盟以对抗居伊,并允许一支穆斯林驻军驻扎在他在太巴列的封地上,也许是希望萨拉丁帮他推翻居伊。与此同时,萨拉丁已经平定了他的美索不达米亚的领地,现在正急于攻打这个十字军王国,当休战协议于1187年到期以后,他不打算续签了。在休战到期以前,沙蒂永的雷纳德,外约旦(Oultrejourdain)和克拉克的领主,也是居伊的主要支持者之一,意识到萨拉丁正在集结他的部队,就试图通过攻击穆斯林马队来阻止这一点。居伊差点就要对雷蒙德动武了,但是他意识到王国需要团结起来面对萨拉丁的威胁,而伊贝林的巴利安在1187年的复活节促成了双方的和解。萨拉丁再次于四月和五月攻打克拉克,一支穆斯林突击队在一个规模要小得多的使团正在去与雷蒙德谈判的途中袭击了后者,并在拿撒勒附近的克雷森之战(Battle of Cresson)中将其击败。雷蒙德和居伊最终同意在太巴列向萨拉丁进攻,但没能达成一个统一的计划;雷蒙德认为应避免一场激战,但居伊可能想起了他在1183年因避战而面对的批评,决定直接向萨拉丁出击。在1187年七月4日,王国军队在哈丁战役(Battle of Hattin)全军覆没。的黎波里的雷蒙德,伊贝林的巴利安,以及西顿的雷金纳德(Reginald of Sidon)逃脱了,但是雷纳德被萨拉丁处决而居伊被囚禁在了大马士革。

                                              在接下来的几个月里,萨拉丁轻易地占领了整个王国。只有提尔的港口还留在法兰克人的手里,由蒙特费拉的康拉德(Conrad of Montferrat)防守,他是鲍德温五世的叔叔,恰好及时地从君士坦丁堡赶来。耶路撒冷的陷落从本质上终结了耶路撒冷第一王国。因萨拉丁对周边领土的征服导致难民逃离而激增的大量人口,被允许逃往提尔,的黎波里,或埃及(在那里他们又被送回了欧洲),但那些不能为自己的自由买单的人都被卖为了奴隶,而那些可能经常被基督徒和穆斯林掠夺的人们也以同样的方式踏上了流亡之路。该城的占领导致了第三次十字军东征,在1189年发起,由狮心王理查(Richard the Lionheart),菲利普•奥古斯都(Philip Augustus)和腓特烈•巴巴罗萨(Frederick Barbarossa)领导,虽然后者最后在半路上淹死了。

                                              吕西尼昂的居伊,被康拉德禁止进入提尔,开始于1189年围攻阿克。在持续到1191年的漫长围攻中,宗主教希拉克略,茜贝拉女王和她的女儿们,以及其他许多人都病死了。随着茜贝拉于1190年去世,居伊在法律上已经没有王位继承权了,而继承权传到了茜贝拉的同父异母妹妹伊莎贝拉那里。伊莎贝拉的母亲玛丽亚和伊贝林兄弟(现在与康拉德紧密地同盟)辩称伊莎贝拉和汉弗莱的婚姻是非法的,因为她当时的年龄还不够;与此相关事实上是由于汉弗莱于1186年背叛了他妻子。在一些争议中这桩婚姻被废止了。康拉德,现在作为鲍德温五世最近的父系男性亲属,又已经证明了自己是一位有能力的军队领袖,接着就和伊莎贝拉结婚了,但是居伊拒绝让出王冠。

                                              当理查于1191年抵达的时候,他和菲利普在继承纠纷中分别支持不同的阵营。理查支持居伊,他来自普瓦图的附庸,而菲利普支持康拉德,他已故的父亲路易七世的表弟。在严重的身体不适和健康欠佳以后,菲利普于1191年在阿克陷落不久之后就回家了。理查在1191年的阿尔苏夫战役(Battle of Arsuf)和1192年的雅法战役(Battle of Jaffa)击败萨拉丁,收复了了大部分的海岸线,但是无法收复耶路撒冷或任何王国的内陆领土。有人认为,这可能实际上是理查的一个战略决策,而不是失败,因为他可能已经认识到,特别是耶路撒冷,由于远离西方援军能够抵达的海边,只要十字军对其进行防守,实际上就会成为一个战略上的累赘。康拉德于1192年四月被一致推选为国王,但几天以后就被阿萨辛派(Hashshashin)谋杀。自那八天以后,怀孕的伊莎贝拉被嫁给了香槟伯爵亨利二世(Henry II of Champagne),他是理查和菲利普的外甥,但是在政治上和理查结盟。作为补偿,理查把塞浦路斯岛(island of Cyprus)卖给了居伊,该岛被理查在去阿克的途中占领,尽管如此居伊仍继续宣称拥有耶路撒冷的王位,直到他于1194年去世。

                                              随着拉姆拉条约(Treaty of Ramla)于1192年签署,十字军运动和平地结束了;萨拉丁允许人们前往耶路撒冷朝圣,使得十字军能够履行他们的誓言,在此之后他们都回家了。本地的十字军男爵们则从阿克和其它沿海城市着手重建他们的王国。


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                                              29楼2013-10-16 20:21
                                                十字军东征本身就是一个吃力不讨好的军事远征计划,而耶路撒冷王国基本就像一个乞丐一样,到处寻求从欧洲来的军事援助,甚至只要有点小实力的西方领主就能爬上女王的床,成为耶路撒冷国王。因为大领主根本就不想掺和这里的权利斗争中。


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                                                32楼2013-10-16 22:29
                                                  力挺楼楼,我会说维基是我最爱的知识网页么,可信度很高呢,哇塞我一般都是用谷歌翻译了之后就凑合看了,楼楼真心厉害啊,膜拜ing...


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                                                  来自Android客户端33楼2013-10-17 13:20

                                                    Main entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
                                                    圣墓教堂的正门。

                                                    The Near East, c. 1190, at the outset of the Third Crusade.
                                                    近东,1190年,于第三次十字军东征刚开始的时候。


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                                                    34楼2013-11-15 16:33
                                                      阿克王国

                                                      在接下来的上百年里,耶路撒冷王国作为一个小王国偏安于叙利亚海岸。它的首都搬到了阿克,控制着今天以色列和黎巴嫩南部和中部大部分的海岸线,包括雅法,阿尔苏夫,凯撒利亚,提尔,西顿,以及贝鲁特的要塞和城镇。在最好的时期,它也只包含了几座其它重要城市,像阿斯卡隆和一些内地的堡垒,以及对的黎波里和安条克的宗主权。新国王,香槟的亨利,于1197年意外死亡,而伊莎贝拉第四次出嫁,嫁给了吕西尼昂的阿马尔里克,居伊的哥哥。阿马尔里克二世已经从居伊那里继承了塞浦路斯,并已被腓特烈•巴巴罗萨的儿子,皇帝亨利六世(Henry VI)加冕为国王。亨利于1197年领导了一次十字军东征,但是于途中逝世。尽管如此,他的部队还是在1198年回师以前为王国重新占领了贝鲁特和西顿。之后一份与叙利亚的阿尤布王朝之间的五年停战协议于1198年被签订。

                                                      阿尤布帝国在萨拉丁于1193年死后就陷入了内战。他的儿子们占据了他帝国的各个部分:阿兹-扎希尔(az-Zahir)控制了阿勒颇,阿尔-阿齐兹•奥斯曼(al-Aziz Uthman)拥有开罗,而他的长子,阿尔-阿夫达尔,保留着大马士革。萨拉丁的弟弟阿尔-阿迪尔•赛义夫•阿德-丁(Al-Adil Sayf ad-Din)(常被十字军称为“萨法丁(Saphadin)”)兼并了半岛(al-Jazira)(北美索不达米亚),而阿尔-阿迪尔的儿子阿尔-穆阿扎姆(al-Mu'azzam)占领了克拉克和外约旦。1196年,阿尔-阿夫达尔被奥斯曼赶出了大马士革。当奥斯曼于1198年死后他又回来了,但是被占领了大马士革城堡(Citadel of Damascus)的阿尔-阿迪尔拒之门外。阿尔-阿迪尔又于1200年征服了开罗,并于1201年将阿尔-阿夫达尔从大马士革驱逐了出去。他宣布自己为埃及和叙利亚苏丹,将大马士革托付给阿尔-穆阿扎姆,并将半岛托付给他的另一个儿子阿尔-卡米尔(al-Kamil)。

                                                      同时,通过埃及重新征服耶路撒冷的计划也在被酝酿。第四次十字军东征在第三次的失败以后被策划,但这次远征却以1204年洗劫君士坦丁堡告终,而牵涉其中的大部分十字军从未抵达王国。然而,在不知道十字军转道君士坦丁堡的情况下,阿马尔里克比预订的入侵计划提前袭击了埃及。伊莎贝拉和阿马尔里克两人都于1205年去世,而又一名未成年少女,伊莎贝拉和康拉德的女儿蒙特费拉的玛丽亚,成为了耶路撒冷女王。伊莎贝拉同母异父的弟弟伊贝林的约翰,贝鲁特的大老爷(John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut),作为摄政治理国家直到1210年玛丽亚嫁给了一位经验丰富的法国骑士,布列讷的约翰(John of Brienne)。玛丽亚于1212年在分娩时去世,而布列讷的约翰作为他们的女儿伊莎贝拉二世的摄政继续统治。


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                                                      本楼含有高级字体40楼2013-11-15 16:42