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CHAPTER 13: EMOTION, STRESS, AND HEALTH
DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY
PROGRAM 12: MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
Overview
A review of what researchers are discovering about why we act and feel as we do, from the exhilaration of love to the agony of failure.
Key Issues
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, biological motivation for sexual behavior, reproductive behavior of rats and the physiological effects, physiological and psychological motivation for romantic love, the universality of emotions, and the effects of optimism and pessimism on physiology.
Demonstrations
Rat sexual behavior.
Interviews
Psychologist Norman Adler studies reproductive behavior and its physiological consequence in rats.
Martin Seligman studies the effects of optimism and pessimism on physiology and behavior.
Abraham Maslow examines the effects of the interplay between human nature and society on motivation.

PROGRAM 23: HEALTH, MIND, AND BEHAVIOR
Overview
How research is forcing a profound rethinking of the relationship between mind and body. A new biopsychosocial model is replacing the traditional biomedical model.
Key Issues
How psychological factors affect the physical health and immune systems of the aged, how psychological factors affect the outcome of in-vitro fertilization, the psychology of biofeedback, the sources and consequences of stress, behavioral modification and AIDS, and the General Adaptation Syndrome.
Demonstrations
Philip Zimbardo demonstrates the process of biofeedback by consciously lowering his pulse rate through relaxation and concentration.
The three stages of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome theory.
Anti-drinking Public Service Announcement.
Interviews
Judith Rodin explains how an increased sense of control and empowerment can have positive effects on the physiology of the aged. Rodin also discusses how the stress of in-vitro fertilization procedure may account for its 80% failure rate.
Neal Miller discusses how individuals can change the functioning of their own internal organs through biofeedback.
Thomas Coates discusses how the combination of medical and psychological research can improve the understanding of the AIDS virus.
Canadian physician Hans Selye studies how stress can affect physical functioning.
FILMS AND VIDEOS
City Spaces, Human Places (1985). PBS (WBGH), 58 minutes
If you are planning a lecture on environmental psychology, this videotape provides a humorous view of the urban environment and how people make use of a city. A NOVA presentation.
Health, Stress, and Coping (1990). Insight Media, 30 minutes
Explores a variety of stressors including daily stress, loss of a love relationship, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Includes information on Norman Cousins and the work of Hans Selye.
Learning to Live with Stress: Programming the Body for Health (1976). DOCA, 20 minutes
Doctors Hans Selye and Herbert Benson discuss the study of stress and its effects on the human brain and body. Describes how stress contributes to psychosomatic illnesses, such as heart problems, hypertension, high blood pressure, and ulcers.


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    CHAPTER14 Understanding Human Personality
    LEARNING OBJECTIVES
    On completion of this chapter, students should be able to:
    1. Describe the constructs of personality and self 2. Identify the various sources of data on personality 3. Differentiate between type and trait theories of personality 4. Define traits, as operationalized by Allport 5. Explain the five-factor model of personality 6. Understand the significance of the consistency paradox 7. Describe the major theories of personality and identify important differences between them 8. Explain the criticism of each theory of personality 9. Explain the significance of the reciprocal relationship between self-esteem and self-presentation CHAPTER OUTLINE
    I. Definitions A. Personality is the complex set of unique psychological qualities that influence an individual’s characteristic patterns of behavior, across different situations and over time. B. Core aspect of the self is the subjective, private aspect of personality that gives coherence and order to behavior. II.Type and Trait Personality Theories A. Categorizing by Types. Some personality theories group people into distinct nonoverlapping categories that are called personality types 1. One early type theory proposed by Hippocrates, positing humors associated with particular temperaments a) Blood: Sanguine temperament, cheerful and active b) Phlegm: Phlegmatic temperament, apathetic and sluggish c) Black bile: Melancholy temperament, sad and brooding d) Yellow bile: Choleric temperament, irritable and excitable
    2. Sheldon related physique to temperament, assigning people to one of three categories, based on body build a) Endomorphic: Fat, soft, round b) Mesomorphic: Muscular, rectangular, strong c) Ectomorphic: Thin, long, fragile
    3. Sulloway proposed a theory of personality based on birth order a) Each child fills a niche within the family
    b) Firstborn children fill the most convenient niche; they identify with their parents
    c) Laterborn children must find different niches, and, thus, are usually more open to experience and deviance
    B. Describing with Traits 1. Traits are enduring qualities or attributes that predispose individuals to behave consistently across situations 2. Allport’s trait approach a) Allport posited that each individual has a unique combination of traits, the building blocks of personality. Three kinds of traits have been identified:
    (i) Cardinal traits are those around which the individual organizes his or her life (ii) Central traits represent major characteristics of the individual (iii) Secondary traits are specific, personal features that help predict the individual’s behavior, but are less useful for understanding personality b) Allport’s interest was in discovery of the unique combinations of these traits that made each individual a singular entity. He viewed personality structures rather than environmental conditions to be the critical determinants of individual behavior
    3. Identifying Universal Trait Dimensions a) Cattell proposed that 16 factors provide the underlying source of the surface behaviors that we think of as personality


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      b) Eysenck derived three broad personality dimensions:
      (i) Extroversion: internal vs. external orientation (ii) Neuroticism: emotionally stable vs. emotionally unstable (iii) Psychoticism: kind and considerate vs. aggressive and antisocial c) Eysenck proposed that personality differences on these dimensions were caused by genetic and biological differences
      4. Five-Factor Model: Recent research indicates that five factors overlap Eysenck’s original three, best characterize personality structure a) The five-factor model (the Big Five) brings categories having a common theme together in the following dimensions:
      (i) Extroversion: Talkative, energetic, and assertive vs. quiet, reserved, and shy (ii) Agreeableness: Sympathetic, kind, and affectionate vs. cold, quarrelsome, and cruel (iii) Conscientiousness: Organized, responsible, and cautious vs. careless, frivolous, and irresponsible (iv) Neuroticism (emotional stability): Stable, calm, and contented vs. anxious, unstable, and temperamental (v) Openness to experience: Creative, intellectual, and open minded vs. simple, shallow, and unintelligent b) Factors are not intended as replacement for specific trait terms, rather they outline a taxonomy that better describes individuals in capturing the dimensions on which they differ
      C. Traits and Heritability 1. Behavioral genetics: The study of the degree to which personality traits and behavior patterns are inherited 2. Heritability studies show that almost all personality traits are influenced by genetic factors D. Do Traits Predict Behaviors? 1. The consistency paradox refers to the observation that personality ratings across time and different observers are consistent, while behavior ratings of a person across situations are not consistent 2. Paradox refers to levels of analysis, the use of specific vs. summary types of data, rather than to actual consistency 3. Different situations are more or less likely to “allow” expression of traits, with those situations most likely to influence behavior occurring when: a) Situations are novel
      b) Situations are ill-defined, offering multiple alternatives but without guidelines on propriety
      c) Situations are stressful or challenging
      4. Forced definition of traits in a more precise manner resulted in the observation that personality is not about behavioral consistency, rather it is a matter of patterns of behavioral coherence E. Evaluation of Type and Trait Theories 1. Criticism based on fact that these theories do not generally explain how behavior is generated, or how personality develops; they only identify and describe characteristics correlated with behavior 2. Trait theories typically portray a static (or at least stabilized) view of personality structure, as it currently exists III. Psychodynamic Theories A. Common to all psychodynamic personality theories is the assumption that powerful inner forces shape personality and motivate behavior
      B. Freudian Psychoanalysis 1. Freud’s theory attempts to explain: a) Origins and course of personality development


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      举报|246楼2011-02-08 11:17
        b) Nature of mind
        c) Aspects of abnormal personality
        d) Ways personality can be changed by therapy
        2. Presumes the core of personality to be the events within a person’s mind (intrapsychic events) that motivate behavior 3. Freud presumed all behavior was motivated, that so-called chance or accidents did not cause behavior, but were determined by motives 4. Drives and Psychosexual Development a) Postulating a common biological basis for behavioral patterns observed in his patients, Freud ascribed motivational source to psychic energy within each individual
        b) Individuals presumed to have inborn instincts or drives that were tension systems
        c) Freud originally postulated two basic drives:
        (i) Self-preservation, associated with the ego (ii) Eros is related to sexual urges and preservation of the species, and is used with the term libido to identify source of energy for sexual urges d) After World War I, Freud added Thanatos, the concept of the death instinct
        e) Eros operates from birth, and is evident in infants’ pleasure in stimulation of erogenous zones, leading Freud to posit that the physical source of sexual pleasures changed in an orderly progression (i.e., five stages of psychosexual development)
        5. Psychic determinism: Assumption that all mental and behavioral reactions are determined by earlier experiences, leading to belief in unconscious processes
        a) Freud believed behavior has both manifest and latent content
        (i) Manifest content of behavior refers to what one says, does, and perceives (indicating awareness) (ii) Latent content includes neurotic symptoms, dreams, slips of the pens and slips of the tongue at the unconscious level of and information-processing 6. The Structure of Personality a) Id: Storehouse of fundamental drives, operating irrationally and on impulse, pushing for expression and immediate gratification; governed by the pleasure principle
        b) Superego: Storehouse of individual’s values, including moral values; corresponds roughly to the notion of conscience
        (i) The inner voice of “oughts” and “should nots”
        (ii) Includes ego ideal, the individual’s view of the kind of person he/she should strive to become (iii) Often in conflict with the id c) Ego: Reality-based aspect of the self, arbitrating conflict between id’s impulses and superego’s demands and choosing actions that gratify id without undesirable consequences
        (i) Governed by the reality principle (ii) When id and superego conflict, ego arranges a compromise both can live with 7. Repression and Ego Defense a) Repression is the psychological process that protects the individual from experiencing extreme anxiety or guilt about impulses, ideas, or memories that are unacceptable and / or dangerous to express. Ego’s most basic defense against being overwhelmed by id and superego
        b) Ego defense mechanisms are mental strategies used by the ego to defend itself in the daily conflict between id impulses that seek expression, and the superego’s demand to deny them
        c) Anxiety is an intense emotional response, triggered when repressed conflict is about to emerge into consciousness. Signals that repression is not working, and a second line-ofdefense to relieve anxiety is required


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        举报|247楼2011-02-08 11:17
          C. Evaluation of Freudian Theory 1. Bases for criticism a) Conceptually vague and not operationally defined, making scientific evaluation of the theory difficult
          b) Freudian psychoanalytic theory is “good history, but bad science”
          (i) Unreliable predictive power (ii) Is applied retrospectively (iii) Typically involves historical reconstruction, rather than scientific construction of probable actions and predictable outcomes (iv) Directs focus away from current stimuli that may be inducing and maintaining the behavior c) Psychoanalytic theory is a developmental theory, but never included studies of children
          d) Minimizes traumatic experiences by reinterpreting memories of them as fantasies
          e) Male-as-norm model makes theory androcentric
          2. Modifications and improvements a) Ongoing research reveals much of daily experience is shaped by processes outside of awareness
          b) Freud’s theory is the most complex, compelling, and comprehensive view of both normal and abnormal personality functioning, even when its predictions are wrong
          3. Like any theory, Freud’s theory must be treated as unconfirmed until it can be confirmed, element by element D. Post-Freudian Theories 1. Intellectual descendants of Freud made several changes in the psychoanalytic view of personality a) More emphasis on ego functions b) Social variables viewed as playing a more significant role in shaping of personality c) Less emphasis on importance of libidinal energy d) Extension of personality development beyond childhood, including the entire life span
          2. Alfred Adler a) Alfred Adler rejected the significance of Eros and the pleasure principle
          b) Adler believed personality structured around striving to overcome feelings of inferiority
          3. Karen Horney a) Challenged Freud’s phallo-centric emphasis b) Placed greater emphasis on cultural factors c) Focused on present character structure rather than on infantile sexuality
          4. Carl Jung expanded the conception of the unconscious to include the: a) Collective unconscious: the fundamental psychological truths shared by the entire human race
          b) Archetype: a primitive, symbolic representation of a particular experience or object, associated with the instinctive tendency to feel, think about, or experience the object in a special way.
          (i) Animus, the male archetype (ii) Anima, the female archetype (iii) Mandala, the archetype of the self c) Jung’s view of personality as a constellation of compensating internal forces, in dynamic balance, resulted in analytic psychology
          IV. Humanistic Theories A. Humanistic approaches to personality are characterized by concern for integrity of the individual’s personal and conscious experience and growth potential B. Features of Humanistic Theories Include: 1. Some humanists believed motivation for behavior derived from the individual’s unique tendencies, both innate and learned, to develop and change in a positive direction
          2. Self-actualization, a constant striving to realize one’s inherent potential, to develop one’s own capacities and talents a) Drive for self-actualization sometimes conflicts with need for approval from the self and others, especially when the individual feels certain obligations or conditions must be met to gain approval, as in:


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          举报|248楼2011-02-08 11:17
            b) Rogers’ mandate of unconditional positive regard in child-rearing
            c) Horney’s idea that people have a “real self” that requires favorable environment to be actualized
            3. Humanistic theories have also been described as holistic, dispositional, phenomenological, and existential a) Holistic: explain individuals’ separate acts in terms of their entire personalities
            b) Dispositional: focus on innate qualities within the individual that exert a major influence over the direction behavior will take
            c) Phenomenological: emphasize the individual’s frame of reference and subjective view of reality, rather than the frame of an observer or a therapist
            d) Existentialist: focus on higher mental processes
            C. Evaluation of Humanistic Theories 1. Criticisms a) Concepts are fuzzy, and difficult to explore empirically
            b) Traditionally, did not focus on particular characteristics of the individual
            c) Theories were more about human nature and qualities shared by all people, than about individual personality or the basis of difference among individuals
            d) Emphasis of the role of the self as source of experience and action neglects environmental variables that also influence behavior
            2. Contemporary research emphasizes psychobiography, “the systematic use of psychological theory to transform a life into a coherent and illuminating story” V.Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories A. Introduction 1. Learning theory orientation looks to environmental circumstances that control behavior 2. Personality is viewed as the sum of overt and covert responses that are reliably elicited by the individual’s reinforcement history 3. Learning by social imitation is by observation of others’ behavior, without actual performance of the response 4. Contemporary theories emphasize importance of both cognitive and behavioral processes B. Mischel’s Cognitive-Affective Personality Theory 1. Posits that response to a specific environmental input depends on a person’s: a) Encoding strategies, the way incoming information is processed:
            (i) Selective attending (ii) Categorization (iii) Making associations b) Expectancies and beliefs: anticipation of likely outcomes for given actions in particular situations
            c) Affects: your feelings and emotions, including physiological responses
            d) Goals and values: outcomes and affective states valued by the individual
            e) Competencies and self-regulatory plans, rules developed by the individual for guiding performance, setting goals, and evaluating effectiveness
            2. Nature of variables for a given individual result from history of observations and interactions with others and with inanimate aspects of the physical environment 3. Beliefs about others’ personalities comes from tracking the way different situations bring out different behaviors C. Bandura’s Cognitive Social-Learning Theory 1. Combines principles of learning with an emphasis on human interactions in social settings 2. Stresses the cognitive processes involved in acquiring and maintaining patterns of behavior and, thus, personality 3. Critical constructs a) Reciprocal determinism: the examining of all components if one wishes to understand human behavior, personality, and social ecology completely
            b) Observational learning: the process by which the individual changes his or her behavior, based on observations of another individual’s behavior
            c) Self-efficacy: the belief that one can perform adequately in a particular situation. Self-efficacy judgments include:
            (i) Vicarious experience (ii) Persuasion (iii) Monitoring of emotional arousal when thinking


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              about a task
              4. Self-efficacy acknowledges the importance of the environment, including perceptions of supportiveness or unsupportiveness of that environment D. Cantor’s Social Intelligence Theory 1. Social intelligence refers to the expertise the individual brings to his or her experience of life tasks 2. Three types of individual differences are defined: a) Choice of life goals b) Knowledge relevant to social interactions c) Strategies for implementing goals 3. Social intelligence offers a new perspective on how personality predicts consistency E. Evaluation of Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories 1. One set of criticisms points out that theories generally overlook emotion as an important component of personality a) Emphasize rational, information-processing variables
              b) Emotions are perceived as by-products of thoughts and behavior, instead of being assigned specific, independent importance
              c) Theories do not fully recognize the impact of unconscious motivation on both behavior and affect
              2. A second set of criticisms focuses on vague explanations relative to creation of personal constructs and competencies a) Cognitive theories focus on the individual’s perception of current behavior setting serves to obscure the individual’s history
              b) Kelly’s theory is more a conceptual system than a theory, as it focuses on structure and processes, saying little about content of personal constructs
              VI. Self Theories A. William James was the earliest advocate of theories addressing how each individual manages his or her sense of self. James identified three components of the self-experience: 1. Material me: the bodily self, along with surrounding physical objects 2. Social me: the individual’s awareness of how others view him or her 3. Spiritual me: the self that monitors private thoughts and feelings B. Dynamic Aspects of Self-Concepts 1. Self-concept is a dynamic mental structure that motivates, interprets, organizes, mediates, and regulates intrapersonal and interpersonal behaviors and processes 2. Components of self-concept include a) Memories about one’s self b) Beliefs about one’s traits, motives, values, and abilities c) Ideal self: the self that one would most like to become d) Possible selves that one contemplates enacting e) Positive or negative evaluations of one’s self (self-esteem) f) Beliefs about what others think of one’s self 3. Self-concept includes schemas about the self, self-schemas, that allow one to organize information about one’s self and influence the way one processes information about others 4. Possible selves are “the ideal selves that we would very much like to become,” and are also “the selves we could become and the selves we are afraid of becoming” C. Self-Esteem and Self-Presentation 1. Self-esteem is a generalized evaluation of the self, influencing thoughts, moods, and behavior a) Low self-esteem may be characterized (in part) by less certainty about the self and may include the feeling that one does not know much about one’s self
              b) Doubt in one’s ability to perform a task may see engagement in self-handicapping behavior, in which one deliberately sabotages one’s own performance, for purposes of


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              举报|250楼2011-02-08 11:40
                (i) Having a ready-made excuse for failure that does not imply lack of ability (ii) Failure can be blamed on low effort, without finding out if one really had the ability to make it 2. Self-presentation is an aspect of self-esteem, explaining behavioral differences between individuals with high and low self-esteem a) Individuals with high self-esteem present themselves to the world as ambitious, aggressive risk takers
                b) Individuals with low self-esteem present themselves as cautious and prudent
                c) Both of these presentations are for public consumption
                d) Self-monitoring, a personality trait related to the individual’s habitual style of self-presentation, is the tendency to regulate behavior to meet social demands or to create a desired social impression
                D. The Cultural Construction of Self 1. Individualistic cultures encourage independent construals of self 2. Collectivist cultures encourage interdependent construals of self E. Evaluation of Self-Theories 1. Self theories succeed at capturing the individual’s concept of their
                own personality and how they wish to be perceived by others
                2. Critics of self theory approach to personality argue against its limitless boundaries. Because many issues are relevant to the self and to the self-concept, it is not always clear which factors are most important for predicting behavior 3. Emphasis on the self as a social construct is not entirely consistent with evidence that some facets of personality may be heritable VII. Comparing Personality Theories A. The Five Most Important Differences in Assumptions about Personality 1. Heredity versus Environment a) Trait theories are split on this issue b) Freudian theory depends heavily on heredity c) Humanistic, social-learning, cognitive, and self theories emphasize either
                (i) Environment as a determinant of behavior (ii) Interaction with environment as a source of personality development and differences 2. Learning Processes versus Innate Laws of Behavior a) Trait theories are (still) divided b) Freudian theory favors inner determinant view c) Humanists posit change as a result of experience d) Social-learning, cognitive, and self theories posit that behavior and personality change as a result of learned experiences
                3. Emphasis on Past, Present, or Future a) Trait theories emphasize past causes b) Freudian theory stresses past events of early childhood c) Social-learning theories focuses on past reinforcements and present contingencies d) Humanistic theories emphasize present phenomenal reality or future goals e) Cognitive and self theories emphasize past and present (and future, in the instance of goal-setting)
                4. Consciousness versus Unconsciousness a) Trait theories pay little attention to this distinction b) Freudian theory emphasizes unconscious processes c) Humanistic, social-learning, and cognitive theories emphasize conscious processes d) Self theories are unclear
                5. Inner Disposition versus Outer Situation a) Trait theories emphasize dispositional factors b) Social-learning theories emphasize situational factors c) All others allow interaction between person-based and


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                举报|251楼2011-02-08 11:40
                  situation-based variables
                  B. Theoretical Contributions to Understanding of Human Personality 1. Trait theories provide a catalog, describing parts and structures 2. Psychodynamic theories add a powerful engine and fuel to get the vehicle moving 3. Humanistic theories put the person in the driver’s seat 4. Social-learning theories supply the steering wheel, directional signals, and other regulation equipment 5. Cognitive theories add reminders that the way the trip is planned, organized, and remembered will be affected by the mental map the driver selects for the journey 6. Self theories remind the driver to consider the image his or her driving ability projects to back-seat drivers and pedestrians VIII. Assessing Personality A. Objective Tests 1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), developed using empirical strategy, is most frequently used personality inventory a) Items included on scales only if they clearly differentiated between two groups
                  b) Each item demonstrates its validity by being answered similarly by members within each group, but differently between groups
                  c) Ten clinical scales, each differentiating a different clinical group
                  d) Validity scales detect suspicious response patterns
                  e) Major revision over the last ten years, resulting in the MMPI-2, added fifteen new content scales
                  2. The NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) a) Measures the five-factor model of personality. The five dimensions are:
                  (i) Neuroticism (ii) Extraversion (iii) Openness (iv) Agreeableness (v) Conscientiousness b) A new inventory based on the five-factor model, The Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ), is designed to have validity across cultures B. Projective Tests 1. Basics a) Projective tests have no predetermined range of responses, but use ambiguous stimuli
                  b) Among the assessment devices most commonly used by psychological practitioners
                  c) Used more frequently outside the U.S. than are objective tests because they are less sensitive to language variation
                  2. Specifics a) The Rorschach test, developed by Hermann Rorschach, uses ambiguous stimuli that are symmetrical inkblots, with responses scored on three major features:
                  (i) Location or part of the card mentioned in the response—does respondent refer to the whole stimulus or only part of it? (ii) Content of the response, nature of the object and activities seen (iii) Determinants, those aspects of the card that prompted response (iv) Correctly utilized, test is both reliable and permits valid assessments about the underlying personality b) The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), developed by Henry Murray
                  (i) Respondents shown pictures of ambiguous scenes and asked to generate stories about them, describing what people are thinking and doing, what led up to each event, and how each situation will end (ii) Individual administering test evaluates structure and content of stories, as well as behavior of individual telling them, attempting to discover respondent’s major concerns motivations, and personality characteristics DISCUSSION QUESTIONS


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                  举报|252楼2011-02-08 11:40
                    1. Have the class suppose that there was no continuity in behavior or personality and that we faced each situation anew, without reference to prior experiences and reactions. Discuss with the class the changes this scenario might evoke in one’s self-concept. 2. What might be the advantage or disadvantage to describing the personality of a developmentally delayed child using the trait orientation? What about use of the type orientation? Ask the class for a show of hands indicating how many prefer each perspective. Have individual class members indicate why they prefer one perspective to the other. 3. In what sense does our personality limit our freedom to act? In what sense does our personality give us greater freedom to act than a cat or dog enjoys? 4. Discuss the five-factor model of personality. Aside from the obvious applications in the mental health industry, ask the class what other applications they see for this model. Have students expand on their perspective. 5. Of the various approaches to personality detailed in this chapter, which do students find to be most satisfying in a personal sense? Is this an emotional or an intellectual choice? Discuss the implications. 6. We all assume somewhat different roles and personalities in different social situations. If you could be only one of these “people,” which would you choose? How would other people’s reactions to you be changed in those situations where you now displayed a new set of characteristics? 7. A surprisingly large percentage of college students (about 50 percent) describe themselves as “shy.” Can such a self-imposed label be changed by the time one reaches college age? If so, how? How does someone come to be “shy”? What is the difference between being a “shy person” and being “situationally shy”? 8. You might want to discuss Judith Rich Harris’s book, The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do; Parents Matter Less than You Think and Peers Matter More, in which she argues that peers, not parents, play the most important role in shaping a child’s personality. As the text explains, there is abundant research that consistently indicates that parents play a large, if not critical, role in shaping a child’s personality. As the text suggests, if parents had little or no impact, then there would be no observable birth order effects. Additionally, Harris ignores the fact that since children tend to grow up in neighborhoods where many families have similar values and behavior standards, they are surrounded by other children with fairly similar values to their own. Children may also self-select friends based on how similar their attitudes and interests are to their own. While peers clearly have some effect, especially during the middle school and high school years, there is no evidence that the effects of peer influence override parental influences in the long run to the degree argued by Harris. How do students feel about this? Do their own experiences confirm or deny Harris’s theories? Why or why not? SUPPLEMENTAL LECTURE MATERIAL


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                    举报|253楼2011-02-08 11:40
                      Harry Stack Sullivan and the Interpersonal Relations Theory of Personality
                      The founder of this position, Harry Stack Sullivan, was an interesting individual, and his areas of concentration were:
                      . The dynamics of personality . The dynamics and treatment of schizophrenia (he coined the term and concept of the “schizophrenic mother”) Sullivan posited his theory of personality within the context of developmental psychology, feeling that to be the only viable avenue for his perspective. Sullivan felt that it was “completely preposterous’ to assume that human behavior was determined solely by instinct, feeling instead that human nature was so pliable and adaptable that even “the most fantastic social rules and regulations [could] be lived up to, if they were properly inculcated in the young.” Sullivan concluded that personality was shaped primarily by social forces, with the lengthy period of dependence in childhood making the child particularly susceptible to the influence of others. He proposed an incredibly powerful need for interpersonal relationships, to the extent that he believed individuals who were deprived of interpersonal contact for extended periods would undergo deterioration in their basic personality structure.
                      Consider Sullivan’s definition of personality for a moment (the relatively enduring pattern of recurrent interpersonal situations which characterize a human life). The significant aspect of this definition is that Sullivan intended it to include those interpersonal relationships that are illusory as well as those which are real. So, in Sullivan’s theory, even the recluse and the psychotic have a “personality.” Many other theories seem to apply only to the normally functioning psyche.
                      Sullivan and Freud shared a belief that human beings strive toward a reduction of inner tension, that the ideal human state is one of euphoria—a condition of total equilibrium. Sullivan saw tension as the opposite of euphoria, reciprocally related to it, and as a state similar to a state of terror. Of course, both extremes can only be approached and neither exists in nature; we exist somewhere on the continuum between the two. He posited seven specific epochs or stages through which personality may develop, each epoch representing an optimal time for certain innate capacities to reach fruition. Since he posits “epochs,” you can see that Sullivan was a stage theorist.
                      Epoch 1: Infancy. Infancy begins at birth and continues until the appearance of articulate speech. This time is highlighted by the influence of maternal tenderness and anxiety. The oral zone is important here, as it brings food and sustenance, as well as breathing, crying, and thumb-sucking.
                      Nursing provides the infant with its first prototaxic mode or experience in interpersonal relationships. This is a primitive mode of experiencing internal and external stimuli, is prominent in early infancy, consists of successive momentary discrete states, and cannot be communicated to others or formulated into symbols (i.e., language).


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                      举报|254楼2011-02-08 11:40
                        Around 12 to 18 months of life, trial-and-error language begins to appear, with early sounds being imitations of those in the environment This represents the parataxic mode, and it ushers in the second stage of personality development. The parataxic mode is a way of experiencing internal and external stimuli that is characterized by use of private symbols and a lack of the conventional concepts of cause and effect.
                        Past infancy and moving into childhood, we see the development of the self-system, the organized perception of one’s self. The self-system includes the desirable “good-me” and the undesirable “bad-me.” The system is a result of experiences with one’s own body and the reflected opinions of significant others, and has anxiety reduction as its primary goal.
                        Epoch 2: Childhood. Children now begin to develop use of language and to acquire responses for averting anxiety and parental punishment. These responses include deception, rationalization, behaving in the way parents expect in order to please them, and increasing the use of sublimation. Of course, some punishment does inevitably occur, and this results in growth of the “bad-me” part of the self-system. As long as parents continue to reinforce the “good-me” part of the child’s self-system, the child will adjust normally.
                        Epoch 3: The Juvenile Era. This epoch begins with the emergence of the need for playmates, which is about the time the child enters school. The syntaxic mode becomes prominent now, and is the most highly developed mode of experiencing internal and external stimuli. This mode is characterized by use of socially understood symbols (i.e., words and numbers), and by the understanding of conventional ideas of cause and effect. According to Sullivan, the ability to live with and among other people will have developed by the end of this epoch.
                        Epoch 4: Preadolescence. This stage begins with the emergence of the need for a more intimate relationship with a specific member of the same sex; Sullivan called this individual the chum. The need for the chum appears around ages 8 to 10 years, and Sullivan considered this relationship critical to the child’s future ability to form intimate relationships of both a sexual and nonsexual nature during the adult years. Sullivan felt that an effective chumship could be instrumental in altering excessive egocentricity (such as tendencies to pout when things go wrong), over dependence and irresponsibility, and the misguided belief that we should be liked by everyone. He saw the chum as a sort of reality check between childhood and adolescence. In addition, during this period, we see the formation of the first structured social groups, such as scout troops.
                        Epoch 5: Early Adolescence. This epoch begins with puberty and the appearance of the lust dynamism that leads to the desire for a close relationship with a member of the opposite sex. Sullivan felt this period to be a great one for maladjustment, due to the societal restrictions on the adolescent’s ability to satisfy the lust dynamism. He also noted that the adolescent’s early attempts at heterosexual relationships can (and often do) lead to embarrassing outcomes, such as impotence, frigidity, premature ejaculation, any and all of which can lead to serious damage to one’s self-esteem. He felt that parental support during this time was critical to the successful transition of this period. If the attempts at heterosexual relationships are successful, and they usually are, then the child has taken another positive step up the ladder of interpersonal relations.


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                        举报|255楼2011-02-08 11:40
                          Epoch 6: Late Adolescence. Late adolescence originates with the achievement of satisfying sexual activity. Of course, the adolescent is now functioning (at least part of the time) in the realm of reality, such as working and paying taxes, and having increased social responsibilities (helping care for an elderly grandparent or a younger sibling, moving away from home and accepting the concurrent adult life-roles). Sullivan feels that those adolescents having the experience of attending college have an advantage. They have an extra few years to make this transition beyond their high-school graduation.
                          Epoch 7: Adulthood. Harry Stack Sullivan did not say a great deal about adulthood, except that it represented the completion of personality development. The reason Sullivan did not say much about adulthood is that he was a psychiatrist, and psychiatrists do not get many opportunities to observe normally functioning adults. Sullivan was smart enough to know that what he observed in the pathological adult population was not applicable to the rest of the nonpathological population.
                          Nature versus Nurture
                          An issue that has dominated developmental psychology for years is the nature—nurture controversy. This issue is directly related to any discussion of personality as well. You might ask students how much of personality they believe is genetically inherited (nature) and how much is learned from the environment (nurture). While generally, researchers argue that both appear to play a role in personality, you might point out that how much of a role each plays may depend on what part of personality you are discussing. For example, genetics clearly plays an important role in nervous system development, which can affect traits such as introversion. On the other hand, the environment (nurture) plays an important role in emotional maturation, as evidenced by Harlow and Spitz’s studies on the effects of early isolation. Ultimately, one of the best ways to sum up the research on this controversy is to say that nature sets a potential range of development, and nurture determines where, within that range, a person will end up. With some aspects of personality, nature sets a wide range of development, giving the environment plenty of room to have an impact. With other aspects of personality, nature sets a narrow range of development, leaving the environment room for only a minor impact. With most aspects of personality, nature appears to set a moderate range of potential development.
                          Personality: Add Women and Stir!
                          The topic of personality serves as an excellent base for discussing the feminist perspective within the field of psychology. Torrey (1987) has incorporated a five-phase sequence of sex-integration, proposed by McIntosh, into the psychology of personality.
                          Phase 1: Womenless Psychology. Torrey provides several interesting examples of womenless psychology, for example, only four of the 707 pages of Hall and Lindzey’s text on personality are devoted to a woman’s theory of personality (Karen Horney’s). Sullivan, Murray, McClelland, and Kohlberg based their work on studies of men, although the theories usually are described as universal.
                          Phase 2: Adding Women to Psychology. In this phase, women’s work is included in the field of psychology, but usually within the overall male-oriented paradigm. Karen Horney’s contributions within the psychoanalytic field would represent this phase.
                          Phase 3: Women as Inherently Different and Deviant. Viewing men as the norm and women as special exceptions occurs in Phase 3. Freud’s view of mature female sexuality is used to illustrate the point. Although aware of the sexual role of the clitoris, Freud insisted that mature sexuality is located in the vagina. Regarding research, Torrey notes that when differences did appear, psychologists have usually interpreted them as showing female inferiority. Witkin, for example, described the holistic style of perception he found in his female participants as a liability to thinking analytically, rather than as a capacity for global synthesis (Torrey, 1987, p. 157).
                          Phase 4: Taking the Psychology of Women Seriously. This phase involves the feminist study of women, their development and social rules. Gilligan’s challenge to Kohlberg’s theory represents this stage, as does Homer’s extension of achievement motivation (McClelland).
                          Phase 5: All the Human Experience, Psychology Redefined. A paradigmatic shift would be necessary within psychology to describe the human experience as a discipline. Until extensive work concerning women is accomplished, it will be difficult to envision the changes within the field. Do different theories represent different phases? Are men and women really so different? If so, what are the social, political, and economic implications of personality differences? Since women are becoming the majority in the field of psychology, what impact do you think this will have on the psychology of the 21st century?


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                          举报|256楼2011-02-08 11:40
                            CHAPTER 14: UNDERSTANDING HUMAN PERSONALITY
                            BIOGRAPHICAL PROFILE
                            Gordon Willard Allport (1897–1967)
                            As a student, Gordon Allport was deeply influenced by the writings of William James, whom he resembles in his style of investigation and his uncompromising interest in the individual as self. Allport waѕ born in Montezuma, Indiana, in 1897, one of four children. His father, a physician, ran his clinic in the Allport home. He indulged his strong belief in the imposition of discipline and responsibility at an early age by assigning each of his sons a task to carry out in the clinic. Mrs. Allport, a former schoolteacher, introduced the children to philosophy, providing them with the foundations of the classics and encouraging their independent inquiry into the nature of things. She was a religious woman and stressed the importance of faith. Allport himself has described his upbringing as one of “plain Proteѕtant piety and hard work.”
                            On completion of high school, Allport followed hiѕ brother Floyd to Harvard. His education was interrupted briefly when he served a short time in the armed forces during World War I. He eventually earned hiѕ B.A. in 1919. Gordon did not immediately pursue a graduate degree, choosing instead to teach in Istanbul, Turkey, but returned to Harvard a year later to earn his doctorate in psychology at the age of 24. He did not remain in the United States for long, again feeling the need to travel and study abroad. This time Allport spent two years at large universities in England and Germany. When he returned, he secured a permanent academic position at Harvard.
                            Allport’ѕ most significant book, Personality: A Psychological Interpretation, was published in 1937
                            and enjoyed a great reception. (The book was thoroughly revised 24 years later under the title Pattern and Growth in Personality.) His approach to understanding human personality as a growing, changing system of traits, attitudes, and habitѕ became well known. Allport is responsible for emphasizing the importance of both the concept of attitudes in social psychology and the concept of personality traits.
                            From 1939 to 1949, he was the Harvard University editor of the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology and was elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1939. He cofounded the Department of Social Relations at Harvard in 1946 and, thereafter, was closely identified with the “third force” in psychology, the humanistic psychologists. Allport received the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 1964 and continued to pursue his research and writing until his death in 1967.
                            Hans Jargon Eysenck (b. 1916)
                            Hans Eysenck, the grandson of a medical doctor and an only child, waѕ born in Berlin, Germany. In order to gain admission to the University of Berlin, Eysenck was required to join the Nazi party as a member of the SS. He tolerated these circumstances for only a short time, leaving eventually for France and, finally, England. Eysenck studied psychology at the University of London, obtaining his Ph.D. in 1940. He became director of the psychology department at Maudsley Hospital in London after World War II, and has traveled often to the United States as a visiting professor.


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                            举报|257楼2011-02-14 15:21
                              Eysenck’s contributions to psychology have been varied. He is regarded most for his empirical and theoretical work on personality and his contributions to behavior therapy. He is particularly well known for his personality test battery, the Eysenck Personality Inventory, and for his critical review, in 1952, of the value and effectiveness of psychotherapy, especially psychoanalysis, in the
                              treatment of psychological disorders. Eysenck founded the journal Behavior Research and Therapy in 1962, and is the author of more than 350 books and articles, including the Biological Basis of Personality (1964) and Personality, Structure and Measurement (1969<1>).
                              Sigmund Freud (1856–1939<1>)
                              Sigmund Freud waѕ born in Pribor, Czechoslovakia, in 1856. Although Freud was a gifted student, it took him eight years to finish hiѕ medical degree at the University of Vienna, partly because he was interested in so many topics. Freud first pursued a career as a neurologist, but financial concerns forced him into general medical practice. In cooperation with his friend Joseph Breuer, Freud began to treat hysterical women. This is unusual, because at the time there was no known cure for hysteria, which is now known as a conversion disorder. Through trial and error and feedback from clientѕ, Breuer and Freud developed the technique known as psychoanalysis.
                              The fundamental rule of psychoanalysis is honesty; clientѕ must relay all thoughts and feelings uncensored to the analyst. Clients then follow their stream of thought wherever it may lead, a process known as free association. In the course of free association, clients often uncover traumatic events in the past, and, upon reliving these events, often experience relief from their symptoms.
                              Freud’s first major work, The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), detailed the process of dream interpretation, which he felt was the “royal road to the unconscious.” Although it took six years to sell the first 600 copies printed, this work would go through eight additional printings during Freud’s lifetime.
                              Although the technique of psychoanalysis is perhaps Freud’ѕ most important legacy, he made many other substantial contributions to psychology. These include the recognition of the importance of sexuality and unconscious processes, a fully developed system of personality, and an appreciation for the conflict between individual desires and the constraints of society. His work has influenced so many aspects of our thinking that he is often not given full credit for the development of his ideas. Freud’ѕ many detractors are quick to point out that his theories are not based on empirical research. While this is certainly true, just because they lack empirical evidence does not mean that they are wrong. It just means that they are less likely to be right. Because of the
                              breadth of his intellectual contributions, he remains the most cited psychologist in Psychology and Life and most comparable texts.
                              Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961)


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                              举报|258楼2011-02-14 15:21
                                Carl Jung waѕ born in Kesswil, Switzerland, the son of a pastor. From childhood, Jung was
                                fascinated by the problems of religion and spiritualiѕm. He received hiѕ M.D. from the University of Basel in 1901, with an emphasis in psychiatry. Having read Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams, he sought the master out and soon became Freud’s most famous disciple. An eventual split between Freud and Jung occurred, prompted by Jung’ѕ belief that the psychosexual theory of development was too restrictive.
                                Jung advanced his own brand of psychology, known as analytic psychology, introducing the concepts of the collective unconscious and archetypes. Like Freud, Jung developed a large following of loyal adherents. In his later writings, Jung returned often to an analysis of religion and mysticism, addressing themes that had fascinated him from his youth.
                                Neal Miller (b. 1909)
                                Neal Miller haѕ been in the vanguard of American psychology for more than 30 years. He sees himself as a “builder of bridgeѕ between disciplines” and, indeed, his contributions run the gamut from social-learning theory and frustration-aggression hypotheses, to physiological research into brain stimulation and control of autonomic responses through biofeedback.
                                Miller received his undergraduate training at the University of Washington and his master’s degree at Stanford University. In 1935, he earned his doctorate at Yale, the school with which he would be associated for the next 30 years. In light of the strongly behavioristic approach his research has taken, it is interesting to note that he received considerable formal training in psychoanalytic theory
                                and practice. Perhaps his participation at the Institute of Human Relations at Yale, where he was in contact with anthropologists and sociologists primarily concerned with the influence of the social milieu on the individual, impressed him with the limitations of analysis.
                                With the publication of two landmark books, Social Learning and Imitation in 1941 and Personality and Psychotherapy in 1950, he and his colleague, John Dollard, created a sensation. These works demonstrated that social learning, psychoanalytic treatment, and the origins of neurosis could be understood in terms of classical learning theory. The intelligent, innovative nature of Miller’s accomplishment brought him a Newcomb-Cleveland Prize in 1951 and a Warren Medal in 1954.
                                In the same year that Personality and Psychotherapy was published, Miller applied his theories of behavior modification to victims of combat neurosis with a high degree of success, essentially abandoning the psychoanalytic approach to therapy. True to his self-portrait as a “bridge-builder,” he translated the implications of his research and therapeutic techniques to a more physiologically based line of inquiry, investigation into the physiology of learned responses. He used electrical stimulation of parts of the brains of animal participants to elicit motivational sensations such as fear, pain, and pleasure, and demonstrated that an electrical or chemical stimulation of the brain may bring about sensations of hunger. Following the example of Pavlov, he continues to explore a wide range of learned visceral responses. In accord with what he has already discovered about learned visceral responses, he designed a lightweight electromechanical instrument that alerts children with scoliosis whenever they lapse into incorrect posture. The results of this treatment have been encouraging.


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                                举报|259楼2011-02-14 15:21
                                  Although he is now an emeritus professor, Miller remains active in his research and conceptual contributions to the field of behavioral medicine. Miller served as president of the American Psychological Association in 1961, was awarded the National Medal of Science, and haѕ been elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
                                  Carl Rogers (1902–1987)
                                  Carl Rogers, the founder of client-centered therapy and one of the best-known figures in humanistic psychology, is often described by friends as the “man who gave people permission to be themselves.” A firm believer in the basic goodness of human beings, Rogerѕ based his approach to therapy and education on the assumption that individuals, when given the proper opportunity and encouragement, can decide for themselves the best course to follow. This doctrine placed the mild-mannered Rogers squarely in the face of controversy throughout his career, as he attempted to go beyond the mere formulation of pleasant-sounding philosophies, to implement his notions in the context of social institutions.
                                  A student of agriculture, Rogers made an abrupt change of plans after traveling to China with a student religious group. He began to see that he would only truly satisfy his needs and interests in a milieu that encouraged communication and offered him an opportunity to help others. He enrolled in a theological seminary, but soon found the emphasis on dogma and hierarchy to be contradictory to his highly personal approach. He switched to the study of psychology, a discipline in which he felt he would be better able to develop and act on his ideas. He received hiѕ bachelor’s degree from the University of Wisconsin in 1924. After graduating from Columbia Teachers College, he became director of the Rochester Child Guidance Clinic in New York and there began to construct the techniques that would eventually evolve into Rogerian, or client-centered, therapy.
                                  Rogers finally joined forces with a group of like-minded psychologists at the Western Institute for Behavioral Sciences in California. This nonprofit center is involved in several projects, including a tremendously popular two-week summer course of encounter groups. An even more ambitious project is designed to put physicians in closer touch with the “human” and ethical aspects of medical practice.
                                  Throughout his career, Rogers continued to believe that the purpose of therapy was to assist the
                                  client in realizing his or her potential, and he conducted some of the first empirical studies of the process and effectiveness of psychotherapy. He was instrumental in elevating humanistic psychology to its stature as a “Third Force” in psychology, and was elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1947.
                                  In spite of all his successes, Rogers continued to be criticized from many sides. Even friends and colleagues described his views as overly optimistic—particularly his faith that tense situations such as racial confrontations can be resolved by person-centered therapy techniques. Nevertheless, Rogers, if anything, grew more optimistic. During the last few years of his life, in response to the growing popularity of his client-centered therapy, he trained facilitators (therapists) in Germany,


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                                  举报|260楼2011-02-14 15:21
                                    Japan, and Brazil. His notable works include Client-Centered Therapy (1951) and On Becoming a Person (1961).
                                    TIMELINE
                                    Yea Event r 1900 Freud published what many believe was his greatest work, The Interpretation of Dreams. 1913 Carl Jung broke ranks with Freud and soon became a major figure in the development of an alternative psychoanalytic theory, analytic psychology. 191419<1>18 World War I was fought. 1920 Alfred Adler published the Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology, outlining his views on the social ramifications of psychoanalysis. 1921 Hermann Rorschach developed his famous projective test, composed of a series of symmetrical inkblots. 1929 The Great Depression began in America. 1937 Gordon Allport published Personality: A Psychological Interpretation, outlining his trait theory of personality. 1937 Karen Horney published The Neurotic Personality of Our Time, describing her theory of personality. 1938 Henry Murray published Explorations in Personality and developed a projective test called the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), a series of black-and-white drawings of a person or persons in ambiguous situations. 19391945 World War II was fought. 1940s Carl Rogers developed his ideas on the humanistic view of personality development. 1943 Starke Hathaway and J. C. McKinley published the first edition of the MMPI, which soon became the most widely used personality test ever. 1950 Raymond Cattell developed the 16 PF, which later became a widely used personality inventory.
                                    1951 Carl Rogers published Client-Centered Therapy, explaining how his ideas could be applied to therapy. 1954 Abraham Maslow published Motivation and Personality, explaining the relationship of his hierarchy of needs to both motivation and personality development. 1957 Sputnik, the first satellite, was launched. 1963 Albert Bandura, with R. H. Walters, published Social Learning Personality and Development, explaining the influences of social learning on personality growth. 1973 Walter Mischel challenged the basic idea that personality traits have cross-situational consistency, and proposed a cognitive-social learning theory of personality. 1980 Ronald Reagan was elected President. 1986 Albert Bandura published Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, presenting his influential self-efficacy theory. 1989 The University of Minnesota published the second edition of the MMPI, which was standardized on a larger, more heterogeneous group of people than the first edition.
                                    SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READINGѕ
                                    Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. The leading proponent for understanding personality from a social-cognitive orientation presents his influential self-efficacy theory.
                                    Cantor, N. & Harlow, R. E. (1994). Personality, Strategic Behavior, and Daily-Life Problem Solving. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3 (6), 169–172. A look at the problem-solving efforts used by individuals as they work toward solving the “life tasks” in their daily lives.
                                    Carlson, J. F. (1989). Psychosexual Pursuit. Enhancing Learning of Theoretical Psychoanalytic Constructs. Teaching of Psychology, 16, 82–84. Carlson developed a game that can accommodate as many as 50 players. This article reproduces a game board on which players must move through the stages of psychosexual development and eventually become adults. Play money represents psychic energy; the goal is to retain as much psychic energy as possible for adult life tasks. Defense mechanisms and fixation are incorporated into the game rules.
                                    Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1992). Perspectives on Personality, 2nd Ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Presents very readable and current coverage of personality psychology by two of the better-known researchers in the area; includes much of their own research.
                                    Costa, P., & McCrae, R. (1998). Trait Theories of Personality. New York: Plenum Press. The fathers of the Big Five personality theory make an argument for their system of personality.
                                    Evans, R. (1981). Dialogue with C. G. Jung. New York: Praeger Special Studies/Praeger Scientific. Dr. Richard Evans conducts a one-on-one interview with Carl Jung, exploring Jung’s relationship with Freud, and his reactions to various psychological issues and concepts.
                                    Ewen, R. (1998). An Introduction to Theories of Personality (5th Ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. An excellent introduction to the field of personality. Presents the theories of eleven major figures in personality psychology.
                                    Eysenck, H. (1998). Dimensions of Personality. New Brunswick, Transaction Publishers. The
                                    accumulation of Eysenck’s 50 years of research on personality. Intended for students of psychology, psychiatry and sociology.


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                                    举报|261楼2011-02-14 15:21
                                      Freud, S. (1961). The Ego and the Id. New York: Norton. Original work published in 1923. Translated by James Strachey.
                                      Freud, S. (1963). An Outline of Psychoanalysis. New York: W. W. Norton. Original work published 1940. Translated by James Strachey.
                                      Gay, P. (1988). Freud: A Life for Our Time. New York: W.W. Norton. The definitive biography on Freud. Provides rich details about his life, and presents his ideas in easily accessible form.
                                      Hall, C., & Lindzey, G. (1978). Theories of Personality, (3rd Ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. A classic text on personality theory.
                                      Hogan, R. (1986). What Every Student Should Know About Personality. In V. P. Makosky (Ed.), The G. Stanley Hall Lectures Vol. 6. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. A brief, entertaining summary of some of the most important research and theoretical issues in personality psychology. As with Hall’s other works, this is worth the read.
                                      Holzman, P. S. (1994). Retrospective Feature Review: Hilgard on Psychoanalysis as Science. Psychological Science, 5, (4), 190–191. An interesting look at Hilgard’s perspective on Psychoanalysis, in which he criticizes Freud for failing to appropriately “define the field of inquiry.”
                                      Jung, C. (1990). The Basic Writings of C. G. Jung. Princeton, Princeton University Press. Translated by Richard Carrington. Presents Jung’ѕ most important writings on the nature of human personality.
                                      Rogers, C. (1961). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy. An older work, but certainly worth the time. It provides the foundation for understanding Rogers’ client-centered therapy.
                                      DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY
                                      PROGRAM 15: THE SELF
                                      Overview
                                      How psychologists systematically study the origins of self-identity and self-esteem, social determinants of self-conceptions, and the emotional and motivational consequences of beliefs about oneself
                                      Key Issues


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                                      举报|262楼2011-02-14 15:41
                                        The process of individualization in children, Freud’s Ego, Id, and Superego, the theory of self-efficacy, the relationship between nonverbal communication and status, the effects of self-presentation on the reaction of others, and the effects of reward and competition on creativity.
                                        Demonstrations
                                        Status differences in nonverbal behavior on communication.
                                        New Interviews
                                        Hazel Markus looks at the relationship between the self and culture and examines the mutual constitution of the two.
                                        FILMS AND VIDEOS
                                        First Feelings (1992). RMI Media Productionѕ, 30 minutes
                                        From the Coast Telecourse, this program addresses the question of how much of an infant’s personality can be attributed to the relationship with caregivers and how much can be explained by the baby’s inborn temperament.
                                        Freud: The Hidden Nature of Man (1970). IU(LCA), 29 minutes
                                        Analyzes Freud’s revolutionary theories of the power of the unconscious; the Oedipus complex; dream analysis; and the ego, superego, and id. Points out the impact of his ideas on man’s attitude toward himself, particularly Victorian man’s approach to sexuality. Uses the technique of dramatic reenactment of his ideas, with actors playing Freud and his patients.
                                        Freud Under Analysis (1987). IC(CORT), 58 minutes
                                        Profiles Freud’s life and contributions to the development of psychoanalytic theory, which established the study of the mind as a science. Discusses hiѕ major ideas, including the function of sexual repression in the development of the personality, the role of the unconscious, the importance of childhood experiences to adult development, and the therapeutic techniques of psychoanalysis in controlling neurotic behaviors. Produced for the NOVA series.
                                        Neurotic Behavior: A Psychodynamic View (1973). CRM, 19 minutes
                                        Illustrates several varieties of neurotic behavior and classical defense mechaniѕms in a vignette about the life of Peter, a college student. A psychodynamic approach to behavior is used to analyze Peter’s life as he experiences anxiety, then repression, rationalization, displacement, and finally phobias and obsessive-compulsive neurosis in reaction to the psychological trauma induced by hiѕ mother during early training. This film illustrates the unconscious and unintentional nature of defense mechaniѕms.
                                        Personality (1971). (CRM)MCGH, 30 minutes
                                        Focuses on an articulate, self-aware college senior. It begins with his self-report, which is contrasted with the opinions of his parents, his girlfriend, and his roommate. Thematic Apperception Tests are shown. Good, as the TAT is an instrument many students will never have the opportunity to see, other than in this venue.
                                        Ratman (1974). TLF, 53 minutes
                                        A dramatization of one of Freud’ѕ most famous cases. Freud’s analysis of the obsessive behavior of this patient is reviewed.
                                        67,000 Dreams (1972). TLF, 30 minutes
                                        An interview with Carl Jung in which he talks about the development of his theory, including the concept of the collective unconscious.



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                                        举报|263楼2011-02-14 15:42
                                          CASE STUDY LECTURE LAUNCHER
                                          In 1923, personal tragedy transformed the life of an 18-year-old Texan named Howard. This overprotected college freshman had never made a major decision for himself. When a heart attack killed his father, only two years after the death of hiѕ mother, Howard suddenly inherited three-fourths of the interest in the family’s lucrative tool company. His uncle and grandparents, who owned the rest of the business, urged Howard to return to school. Despite his reputation as a shy and obedient boy, Howard refused. Within four months, he bought out his relatives’ share in the company. By the time Howard was 19, a judge had granted him adult status, giving him full legal control of the million-dollar company (Barlett & Steele, 1979). However, he had no interest in running the family business. Instead, he wanted to become the world’s top aviator and most famouѕ motion picture producer. “Then,” he told his accountant, “I want you to make me the richest man in the world” (Dietrich & Thomas, 1972, p. 73).



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                                          举报|264楼2011-02-14 15:43
                                            By the time he was 38, Howard Hughes was an American legend. He founded the Hughes Aircraft Company, manufacturer of the first spacecraft to land on the moon. He transformed Trans World Airlines into a $500 million empire. He designed and built airplanes for racing, military, and commercial uses. As a pilot, he broke many aviation records, capping his triumphs with a 1938 round-the-world flight. Ticker-tape parades in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Houston honored his achievement (Drosnin, 1985). However, long before that, when he was only 20 years old, he had already reaped national honors producing several films, among them an Academy Award winner. As head of the RKO film studio, Hughes used his power to fuel the 1950s anticommunist purge in Hollywood. Eventually, Hughes realized his ambition; he became the world’s richest man.


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                                            举报|265楼2011-02-14 15:43
                                              Despite his incredible public success, Howard Hughes was a deeply disturbed individual. As his empire expanded, he became increasingly disorganized. He began to focus so excessively on trivial details that he accomplished less and less. He became a recluse, sometimes vanishing for months at a time.



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                                              举报|266楼2011-02-14 15:43
                                                表示看不懂。。。
                                                我英文很差


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                                                举报|267楼2011-02-14 16:44
                                                  CHAPTER 15: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

                                                  result in maladaptive behavior

                                                  (iii) Cognitive perspectives may be used to supplement
                                                  behavioristic views
                                                  (a)
                                                  How the individual perceives and thinks about
                                                  him- or herself, and his/her relations with others
                                                  in the environment are important issues
                                                  (b) This approach suggests problems are the result of
                                                  distortions in perceptions of the reality of a
                                                  situation
                                                  (iv) The sociocultural perspective emphasizes the role
                                                  culture plays in both the diagnosis and etiology of
                                                  abnormal behavior
                                                  c)
                                                  Most recently, the interactionist perspective is becoming
                                                  increasingly popular, and is viewed as a product of the
                                                  complex interactions between a number of biological and
                                                  psychological factors

                                                  II.Classifying Psychological Disorders
                                                  A.
                                                  Psychological Diagnosis: The label given to an abnormality by classifying and
                                                  categorizing the observed behavior pattern into an approved diagnostic system
                                                  B.
                                                  Goals of Classification
                                                  1.
                                                  A useful diagnostic system provides the following three benefits:
                                                  a)
                                                  Common shorthand language: A common set of agreed-upon
                                                  meanings, given that it is imperative that researchers
                                                  studying different aspects of psychopathology, or evaluating
                                                  treatment programs, can agree on the disorder they are
                                                  observing

                                                  b)
                                                  Understanding etiology: Under ideal circumstances, a
                                                  diagnosis of a specific disorder should make clear the
                                                  cause(s) of the symptoms; this is not always possible with
                                                  psychological disorders

                                                  c)
                                                  Treatment plan: Diagnosis should suggest types of treatment
                                                  to consider for particular disorders

                                                  C.
                                                  DSM-IV-TR
                                                  1.
                                                  The 4th revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
                                                  Disorders (DSM) classifies, defines, and describes more than 200
                                                  mental disorders
                                                  2.
                                                  DSM-IV-TR emphasizes the description of patterns of symptoms and
                                                  courses of disorders, rather than etiological theories or treatment
                                                  strategies
                                                  3.
                                                  DSM-IV-TR uses dimensions or axes that portray information about
                                                  the psychological, social, and physical factors that may be associated
                                                  with a psychological disorder
                                                  4.
                                                  Current DSM-IV-TR categories or axes are:
                                                  a) Axis I: Clinical Disorders

                                                  5.
                                                  6.
                                                  7.
                                                  (i)
                                                  These disorders present symptoms of patterns of
                                                  behavioral or psychological problems that typically
                                                  are painful or impair an area of functioning.
                                                  Included are disorders that emerge in infancy,
                                                  childhood, or adolescence
                                                  b)
                                                  Axis II. Personality Disorders & Mental Retardation

                                                  (ii) Details mental retardation and personality
                                                  disorders, i.e., dysfunctional patterns of perceiving
                                                  and responding to the world
                                                  c)
                                                  Axis III. General Medical Conditions

                                                  (iii) Codes physical problems that are relevant to
                                                  understanding or treating an individual’s
                                                  psychological disorders, as detailed on Axes I and II
                                                  d)
                                                  Axis IV. Psychosocial and Environmental Problems


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                                                  举报|268楼2011-02-25 15:31

                                                    (iv) Codes psychosocial and environmental stressors
                                                    that may impact diagnosis and treatment of an
                                                    individual’s disorder and his or her likelihood of
                                                    recovery
                                                    e)
                                                    Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning

                                                    (v)
                                                    Codes the individual’s overall level of current
                                                    functioning in the psychological, social, and
                                                    occupational domains
                                                    Full diagnosis, in accordance with the DSM system, involves
                                                    consideration of each axis

                                                    Methods used to organize and present categories have shifted with
                                                    each revision of the DSM. DSM-III-R felt neurotic disorders and
                                                    psychotic disorders had become too generalized in meaning to
                                                    remain useful as diagnostic categories.

                                                    In addition to the diagnoses on the five traditional axes, DSM-IV-TR
                                                    provides an appendix that describes about 25 culture-bound
                                                    syndromes–recurrent, locality-specific patterns of aberrant behavior
                                                    and troubling experience that may or may not be likened to a
                                                    particular DSM-IV-TR diagnostic category. Such syndromes include:

                                                    a)
                                                    Boufée delirante: A sudden outburst of agitated and
                                                    aggressive behavior, marked confusion, and psychomotor
                                                    excitement (West Africa and Haiti)

                                                    b)
                                                    Koro: An episode of sudden and intense anxiety that the
                                                    penis will recede into the body and possibly cause death
                                                    (South and East Asia)

                                                    c)
                                                    Taijin kyofusho: An individual’s intense fear that his or her
                                                    body, its parts or its functions, displease, embarrass, or are
                                                    offensive to other people (Japan)

                                                    III. Major Types of Psychological Disorders
                                                    A.
                                                    Important Disorders not Covered in Psychology and Life.
                                                    1.
                                                    Substance-use disorders include both dependence on and abuse of
                                                    alcohol and drugs
                                                    2.
                                                    Somatoform disorders involve physical symptoms that arise without a
                                                    physical cause
                                                    3.
                                                    Sexual disorders involve problems with sexual inhibition or
                                                    dysfunction, and deviant sexual practices
                                                    4.
                                                    Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence
                                                    include mental retardation, communication disorders (such as
                                                    stuttering), and autism
                                                    5.
                                                    Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia.
                                                    6.
                                                    Some individuals experience more than one disorder at some point
                                                    in their life span; this is known as comorbidity, the co-occurrence of
                                                    diseases
                                                    B.
                                                    Anxiety Disorders: Types
                                                    1.
                                                    Involve the experiencing of fear or anxiety in certain life situations
                                                    when that anxiety is problematic enough to interfere with the ability
                                                    to function or to enjoy life
                                                    2.
                                                    Generalized Anxiety Disorder: manifests itself as feeling anxious or
                                                    worried most of the time, when not faced with any specific danger.
                                                    Presenting symptoms must include at least three of the following:
                                                    a)
                                                    Muscle tension

                                                    b)
                                                    Fatigue

                                                    c)
                                                    Restlessness

                                                    d)
                                                    Poor concentration

                                                    e)
                                                    Irritability

                                                    f)
                                                    Sleep difficulties

                                                    3.
                                                    Panic Disorder manifests in unexpected, severe panic attacks that


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                                                    举报|269楼2011-02-25 15:31
                                                      begin with a feeling of intense apprehension, fear, or terror. Attacks
                                                      are unexpected, in the sense that they are not evoked by something
                                                      concrete in the situation. One manifestation of panic disorder is
                                                      agoraphobia, an extreme fear of being in public places or open spaces
                                                      from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing.
                                                      4.
                                                      Phobias are diagnosed when the individual suffers from a persistent
                                                      and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation, when
                                                      that fear is excessive and unreasonable, given the reality of the
                                                      threat. Phobias interfere with adjustment, cause significant distress,
                                                      and inhibit necessary action toward goals. DSM-IV-TR defines two categories of phobias.

                                                      a)
                                                      Social phobia is a persistent, irrational fear, arising in
                                                      anticipation of a public situation in which an individual can
                                                      be observed by others

                                                      b)
                                                      Specific phobias occur in response to several different types of
                                                      objects or situations

                                                      5.
                                                      Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is an anxiety disorder in which the
                                                      individual becomes locked into specific patterns of thought and
                                                      behavior. It may best be defined in terms of its component parts
                                                      a)
                                                      Obsessions are thoughts, images, or impulses that recur or
                                                      persist despite the individual’s efforts to suppress them.
                                                      They are experienced as an unwanted invasion of
                                                      consciousness, seem to be senseless or repugnant, and are
                                                      unacceptable to the individual experiencing them.

                                                      b)
                                                      Compulsions are repetitive, purposeful acts performed
                                                      according to certain rules, in a ritualized manner, and in
                                                      response to an obsession. The behavior is performed to
                                                      reduce or prevent the discomfort associated with some
                                                      dreaded situation, but it is either unreasonable or clearly
                                                      excessive.

                                                      6.
                                                      Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety disorder, is
                                                      characterized by the persistent reexperiencing of traumatic events
                                                      through distressing recollections, dreams, hallucinations, or
                                                      flashbacks
                                                      C.
                                                      Anxiety Disorders: Causes
                                                      1.
                                                      Biological: This view posits a predisposition to fear whatever is
                                                      related to sources of serious danger in the evolutionary past, thus the
                                                      preparedness hypothesis suggests that we carry an evolutionary
                                                      tendency to respond quickly and “thoughtlessly” to once-feared
                                                      stimuli. Some evidence is available linking this disorder to
                                                      abnormalities in the basal ganglia and frontal lobe of the brain.
                                                      2.
                                                      Psychodynamic: This model begins with the assumption that
                                                      symptoms of anxiety disorders derive from underlying psychic
                                                      conflicts or fears, with the symptoms being attempts to protect the
                                                      individual from psychological pain
                                                      3.
                                                      Behavioral explanations of anxiety focus on the way symptoms of
                                                      anxiety disorders are reinforced or conditioned
                                                      4.
                                                      Cognitive perspectives concentrate on the perceptual processes or
                                                      attitudes that may distort a person’s estimate of the danger he or she
                                                      is facing. Individuals suffering from anxiety disorders may interpret
                                                      their own distress as a sign of imminent danger
                                                      D.
                                                      Mood Disorders: Types


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                                                      举报|270楼2011-02-25 15:31
                                                        1.
                                                        A mood disorder is an emotional disturbance, such as a severe
                                                        depression or depression alternating with manic stateѕ
                                                        2.
                                                        Major Depressive Disorder occurs so frequently that it haѕ been called
                                                        the “common cold” of psychopathology; virtually everyone has
                                                        experienced elements of this disorder at some time during their
                                                        liveѕ.
                                                        3.
                                                        Bipolar depression is characterized by periods of severe depression,
                                                        alternating with manic episodes
                                                        E.
                                                        Mood Disorders: Causeѕ
                                                        1.
                                                        Biological: Growing evidence suggests that the incidence of mood
                                                        disorder is influenced by genetic factors
                                                        2.
                                                        Psychodynamic: This approach purports the causal mechaniѕm(s) to
                                                        be unconscious conflicts and hostile feelings originating in
                                                        childhood. Freud believed the source of depression to be displaced
                                                        anger, originally directed at someone else, and now turned inward
                                                        against the self
                                                        3.
                                                        Behavioral: This approach focuses on the impact and effects of the
                                                        amount of positive reinforcement and punishments the individual
                                                        receives. Lacking a sufficient level of reinforcement, the individual
                                                        feels sad and withdraws from others.
                                                        4.
                                                        Two Cognitive Theories:
                                                        a)
                                                        Beck argued that depressed people have negative cognitive
                                                        sets, which promote a pattern of negative thought that
                                                        clouds all experiences and produces the other characteristic
                                                        signs of depression. Negative thought patterns include
                                                        negative views of (1) themselves; (2) ongoing experiences;
                                                        and (3) the future.

                                                        b)
                                                        Seligman’s learned helplessness paradigm, the “explanatory
                                                        style view of depression, in which individualѕ believe
                                                        (correctly or not) that they have no control of future
                                                        outcomes of importance to them. Learned helplessness iѕ
                                                        marked by deficits in three areaѕ: (1) motivational; (2)
                                                        emotional; and (3) cognitive.

                                                        F.
                                                        Gender Differences in Depression
                                                        1.
                                                        Women suffer from depression twice as often aѕ men
                                                        2.
                                                        Research suggests differences in response style may originate in
                                                        childhood
                                                        a)
                                                        When women experience sadness, they tend to think about
                                                        causes and implications of their feelings, a ruminative
                                                        response style with an obsessive focus on problems, thus
                                                        increasing depression.

                                                        b)
                                                        Men attempt actively to distract themselves from negative
                                                        feelings through physical exercise or by focusing on
                                                        something else. Other research has also revealed a
                                                        maladaptive tendency for men to distract themselves
                                                        through use of alcohol, drugs, or violent behaviors.

                                                        G.
                                                        ѕuicide
                                                        1.
                                                        Patterns of ѕuicide
                                                        a)
                                                        The 8th leading cause of death in the U. S., 3rd among the
                                                        young, and 2nd among college studentѕ

                                                        b)
                                                        Five million living Americans have attempted ѕuicide

                                                        c)
                                                        For each completed ѕuicide, there are 8 to 20 attempts

                                                        d)
                                                        ѕuicide usually affects at least 6 other individuals


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                                                        举报|271楼2011-02-25 15:56

                                                          2.
                                                          Every 9 minutes, a teenager attemptѕ ѕuicide; every 90 minutes one
                                                          succeedѕ
                                                          3.
                                                          ѕuicide rates for African American youths, of both sexes, are roughly
                                                          half that for white youths. These racial differences persist across the
                                                          life span.
                                                          4.
                                                          Gay and leѕbian youth are at higher risk than are other adolescents
                                                          5.
                                                          Youth ѕuicide is not an impulsive act. It typically occurs as the final
                                                          stage of a period of inner turmoil and outer distress.
                                                          H.
                                                          Personality Disorders
                                                          1.
                                                          A personality disorder is a chronic, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of
                                                          perceiving, thinking, or behaving that can seriously impair the
                                                          individual’s ability to function and can cause significant distress.
                                                          Examples include:
                                                          a)
                                                          Paranoid personality disorders: Show a consistent pattern of
                                                          distrust and suspiciousness about the motives of people with
                                                          whom they interact. These individualѕ believe others are
                                                          trying to harm or deceive them they may find unpleasant
                                                          meanings in harmless situations, and expect their friends,
                                                          spouses, or partners to be disloyal.

                                                          b)
                                                          Histrionic personality disorder: Characterized by patterns of
                                                          excessive emotionality and attention seeking. Sufferers offer
                                                          strong opinions, with great drama, but with little evidence to
                                                          back their claims. They react to minor occasions with
                                                          overblown emotional responses.

                                                          c)
                                                          Narcissistic personality disorders: Manifests grandiose sense of
                                                          self-importance, preoccupation with fantasies of success or
                                                          power, and need for constant admiration. These individuals
                                                          often have problems in interpersonal relationships, tending
                                                          to feel entitled to special favors without reciprocal
                                                          obligation. They exploit others for their own purposes and
                                                          experience difficulty in realizing and experiencing how
                                                          others feel.
                                                          d)
                                                          Antisocial personality disorder: Manifested by a long-standing
                                                          pattern of irresponsible or unlawful behavior that violates
                                                          established social norms. These individuals often do not feel
                                                          shame or remorse for their hurtful behaviors. A violation of
                                                          social normѕ begins early in life; the actions are marked by
                                                          indifference to the rights of others.

                                                          I.
                                                          Dissociative Disorders
                                                          1.
                                                          Consist of a disturbance in the integration of identity, memory, or
                                                          consciousness. Psychologistѕ believe that in dissociative disorders
                                                          the individual escapes from his or her conflictѕ by giving up
                                                          consistency and continuity of the self
                                                          2.
                                                          Dissociative amnesia refers to the forgetting of important personal
                                                          experiences, caused by psychological factors in the absence of any
                                                          organic dysfunction
                                                          3.
                                                          Dissociative identity disorder, formerly known as multiple personality
                                                          disorder, is a dissociative mental disorder in which two or more
                                                          distinct personalities exist within the same individual. May involve
                                                          chronic, severe abuse during childhood.


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                                                          举报|272楼2011-02-25 15:56
                                                            IV. Schizophrenic Disorders
                                                            A.
                                                            Schizophrenic Disorders are a severe form of psychopathology in which personality
                                                            seems to disintegrate, thought and perception are distorted, and emotions are blunted
                                                            1.
                                                            Hallucinations occur often, and are assumed real
                                                            2.
                                                            Delusions, false or irrational beliefs maintained regardless of
                                                            evidence to the contrary, are common
                                                            3.
                                                            Other manifestations
                                                            a) Incoherent language, word salad

                                                            b) Flattened or inappropriate emotions

                                                            c) Disorganized psychomotor behavior

                                                            4.
                                                            Categories of symptoms
                                                            a)
                                                            Positive symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, incoherence,
                                                            and disorganized behavior are prominent during the acute
                                                            or active phaseѕ.

                                                            b)
                                                            Negative symptoms: social withdrawal and flattened
                                                            emotionѕ become more apparent during the chronic phase.

                                                            B.
                                                            Major Types of Schizophrenia
                                                            1.
                                                            Disorganized type: Individual displays inappropriate behavior and
                                                            emotions, incoherent language.
                                                            a)
                                                            Incoherent thought patterns and grossly bizarre and
                                                            disorganized behavior

                                                            b)
                                                            Emotions are flattened or situationally inappropriate,
                                                            language may be incoherent, communications with otherѕ

                                                            break down

                                                            c)
                                                            If present, hallucinations and delusions lack organization
                                                            around a central theme

                                                            2.
                                                            Catatonic type: Individual displays frozen, rigid, or excitable motor
                                                            behavior
                                                            a)
                                                            Major feature is disruption in motor activity

                                                            b)
                                                            Also characterized by extreme negativism and resistance to
                                                            all instructions

                                                            3.
                                                            Paranoid type: Individuals suffer complex and systematized
                                                            delusions, focused around a specific theme, often delusions of
                                                            grandeur or persecution. Symptom onset is usually later in life than
                                                            in other types of schizophrenia. Manifestations include:
                                                            a)
                                                            Delusions of persecution, in which the individual believes
                                                            he/she iѕ being constantly spied upon, plotted against, or is
                                                            in mortal danger

                                                            b)
                                                            Delusions of grandeur, in which the individual believes
                                                            he/she is an important or exalted being, such as Jesus Christ

                                                            c)
                                                            Delusional jealousy, in which the individual becomes
                                                            convinced (without due cause) that his or her mate is
                                                            unfaithful

                                                            4.
                                                            Undifferentiated type: The schizophrenic “grab-bag,” describing the
                                                            individual who exhibits
                                                            a)
                                                            Prominent delusions, hallucinations, incoherent speech, or
                                                            grossly disorganized behavior that fit criteria of more than
                                                            one type, or of no clear type

                                                            b)
                                                            Hodgepodge of symptoms fails to differentiate clearly
                                                            among the schizophrenic reactions.

                                                            5.
                                                            Residual type: Individuals have typically experienced a major episode
                                                            within the past, but are currently free of major positive symptoms.
                                                            a)
                                                            Ongoing presence of the disorder is signaled by minor
                                                            positive symptoms or negative symptoms, such as flattened
                                                            affect

                                                            b)
                                                            Diagnosis of residual type may indicate the individual’s


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